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Enlightened Absolutism: Prussia, Austria, Russia

AP Euro

Kristin Palomares

on 11 March 2013

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Transcript of Enlightened Absolutism: Prussia, Austria, Russia

Enlightened Absolutism Frederick The Great PRUSSIA 1740-1786 Granted many religious freedoms Reduced censorship Improved education Reformed the justice system Abolished the use of torture "the first servant of the state" Thought serfdom was wrong but allowed it because he needed the support of wealthy landowners AUSTRIA Joseph II Most radical royal reformer Son and successor of Maria Theresa 1780-1790 introduced legal reforms and freedom of the press Supported freedom of worship Even for Protestants, Orthodox Christians, and Jews Abolished serfdom and ordered that peasants be paid for their labor with cash Many reforms were undone after his death RUSSIA Catherine The Great 1726-1796 Read many of the works of Enlightenment philosophes including Voltaire Recommended allowing religious toleration and abolishing torture and capital punishment Never accomplished proposed goals Had favored an end to serfdom but after a revolt she changed her stance Tried to gain access to the Baltic Sea Won control of the northern shore of the Black Sea after defeating the Ottomans Also won the right to send ships through Ottoman controlled straits The First Partition Of Poland Russia, Prussia, and Austria each took a piece of Poland Poland disappeared as an independent country for more than a century Daughter of a German Prince
A few months after her marriage she had her husband, the czar, arrested
Soon after he conveniently died, probably by murder 1776
Formed a commission to review Russia's law
Proposed new laws based on the ideas of Montesquieu and Beccaria
Nakaz/Instruction: condemned torture, capital punishment, & serfdom 3 min Pugachev's Rebellion Led by Cossack Emelian Pugachev
supported by workers, conservatives, clergy
Claimed throne on behalf of the late Peter III
Declared emancipation of serfs
Military suppressed
Last major peasant uprising in imperial Russia
Solidified nobles' support for Catherine II
Full transcript