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HSCI 120 Nutrition (Chapter 5)

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Jacob VanderKam

on 27 November 2014

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Transcript of HSCI 120 Nutrition (Chapter 5)

Nutrition
Chapter 5
Plant foods grown without synthetic pesticides or fertilizers
Organic Foods
Food deserts:
low-income areas where more than 500 people or 33% have low access to a supermarket
Current Trends & Concerns
Preliminary research suggests consumers
are no more likely to choose healthier menu items.
Restaurant Menu Labels
List serving size and number of servings
Give total calories and calories from fat*
Show how much the food contributes to Daily Values for important nutrients
Daily Values and Food Labels
Vegetarian diets may offer protection against obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, digestive disorders, and some forms of cancer
Planning a
Vegetarian Diet
MyPlate:
visual icon designed to raise awareness and health literacy about the different food groups
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Sedentary:
only light physical activity
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Reduce calorie intake and increase physical activity
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Serve as catalysts for releasing energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats while maintaining other body components
Vitamins:
Small But Potent
Build strong bones and teeth,
and help carry out metabolic processes and body functions.
Minerals:

A Need for Balance
Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids
Liquid vegetable oils that have been chemically changed through the process of hydrogenation to extend the shelf life of processed foods.
Trans Fats
The body produces it from the liver and obtains it from animal food sources (meat, cheese, eggs, milk).
Cholesterol
Principal form of stored energy in the body
Fats:

A Necessary Nutrient
Function:
Build and maintain muscles, bones, and other body tissues
Form enzymes that facilitate chemical reactions
Complex carbohydrate
found in plants that
cannot
be broken down by the digestive tract.
Complex Carbohydrate Sources:
Whole grains (whole wheat, brown rice, oatmeal, corn)
Vegetables
Some fruit
Simple & Complex Carbohydrates
Essential nutrients: needed to build, maintain, and repair
tissues and regulate body functions (Cannot be synthesized by the body).
Types of Nutrients
Genetically modified (GM) organisms:
genetic makeup has been changed to produce desirable results
Genetically Modified Foods
Kitchen Safety
Food intoxication:
food poisoning in which food is contaminated by natural toxins.
Example:
Botulism
Foodborne Illnesses
Fast-Food
Meal
Overconsumption of soft drinks
Current Trends & Concerns
How front-of-package labeling works.
Recommended FOP Labels
Two-thirds of Americans are now overweight or obese.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
The Color Wheel
of Foods
May keep cells healthy, slow tissue degeneration, prevent carcinogens, reduce cholesterol, protect heart, maintain hormone levels, keep bones strong.
Other Substances in Food
Phytochemicals:
Overview of RDIs
Monounsaturated fat:
found mostly in plant sources, are liquid at room temperature, and are semisolid or solid when refrigerated
Olive, safflower, peanut and canola oils
Avocados
Many nuts
Types of Fat
Saturated fat:
found in animal products and other fats that remain solid at room temperature
Beef
Pork
Poultry
Whole-milk dairy products
Certain tropical oils (coconut and palm)
Certain nuts (macadamia)
Incomplete protein sources
Vegetable proteins:
grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, other vegetables
Protein:
Nutritional Muscle
Fiber is best obtained through diet,
not
pills or supplements
Fiber
Fuel most of the body’s cells during daily activities.
Carbohydrates:

Your Body’s Fuel
Function:
Water:

The Unappreciated Nutrient
USDA MyPlate:
graphic nutritional tool developed to accompany the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
Understanding Nutritional Guidelines

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
represents the average daily amount of any one nutrient to protect against nutritional deficiency.
Understanding Nutritional Guidelines

Rules for Leftovers
Nutrition Facts Food Label
Estimated Calorie Requirements
2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: Key Messages
Key Vitamins and Minerals
MyPlate
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR):
intake levels of essential nutrients that provide adequate nutrition and reduce risk of chronic disease.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs):
recommended intake levels of essential nutrients for optimal health.
Daily Values:
standards used on food labels to indicate how a particular food contributes to the recommended daily intake of major nutrients in a 2,000-calorie diet.
4 calories per gram of carbohydrates & proteins
9 calories per gram of fat
Calorie:
measure of energy provided by food.
Vitamins
Minerals
Micro-nutrients:
needed in small amounts
Water
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Macro-nutrients:
needed in large amounts
Water needs can vary depending on several factors, such as foods consumed and activity level.
2 to 3 liters, or 8 to 12 cups of fluid
1 to 1.5 milliliters per calorie spent
RDA:
Lubricates our body parts
Carries waste out of the body
Helps regulate body temperature
Digests, absorbs, & transports nutrients
The body’s main source of energy.
RDA:
130 grams for males and females (aged 1–70)
Complex carbohydrates (starches and dietary fibers)
Simple carbohydrates (sugars)
Types:
Only source of energy for brain cells,
red-blood cells, and some other types of cells
Used by muscle cells during high-intensity exercise
Simple carbohydrates:
Easily digestible & composed of 1 or 2 sugar molecules
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
Lactose
Maltose
Sucrose
Polyunsaturated fat:
commonly referred to as “oil”; liquid at room temperature and when refrigerated
Corn and soybean oils
Fish, including trout, salmon, and anchovies
Types of Fat
RDA:
20–35% of calories from fat with only about one-third coming from saturated fats
Provide emergency reserve when we are sick or when our food intake is diminished
Affect texture, taste, and smell of foods
Assist in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
Provide the major material for cell membranes and for the myelin sheaths that surround nerve fibers
Role in the production of other fatty acids and Vitamin D
Provide essential fatty acids
Complete protein sources
Animal proteins:
meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese, eggs
*Example: beans and rice
Complementary proteins:
proteins that in combination provide essential amino acids
Mutual supplementation:
nutritional strategy of combining two incomplete protein sources to provide a complete protein.
Protein:
Nutritional Muscle
RDA:

0.36 grams per pound of body weight
Types:
Complete proteins
Incomplete proteins
Sources of fiber:
Fruits
Vegetables
Dried beans
Peas and other legumes
Cereal
Grains
Nuts
Seeds
Fiber
RDA:
25 grams/day for women (aged 19-50)
38 grams/day for men (aged 14-50)
Fiber allows for passage of food quickly through the intestines, which helps prevent hemorrhoids and constipation.
Omega-3s:
contain alpha-linolenic acid, which helps slow the clotting of blood, improves arterial health, and lowers blood pressure

Omega-6s:
contain linolenic-acid and are important to health, though they are often consumed too much by Americans

Foods high in trans fatty acids include:
Crackers, cookies, chips
Cakes and pies
Doughnuts
Deep fried foods like French fries
Pose a risk to cardiovascular health
by raising LDL levels and lowering HDL levels
Recommended:
consume no more than 300 milligrams per day.
LDLs
(low density lipoproteins) are the “bad” cholesterol.
Too much cholesterol can clog arteries and lead to cardiovascular disease.
A waxy substance that is needed for several important body functions.
HDLs
(high density lipoproteins) are considered “good”.
substances naturally produced by plants.
Three important types of phytochemicals:
Phytonutrients:
may inhibit growth of cancer and heart disease
Phytoestrogens:
lower cholesterol and reduce risk of heart disease
Antioxidants:
neutralize free radicals
Approaches to change:
Individual
Environmental
Food supply
Focus is on stopping and reversing the spread of overweight & obesity
Microminerals
(need less than 100 mgs/day)
chromium
cobalt
copper
fluorine
iodine
iron
zinc
manganese
nickel
Macrominerals
(need at least 100 mgs/day)
calcium
chloride
magnesium
phosphorous
potassium
sodium
The body needs
20
essential minerals
Vitamins can be found in a variety of foods,
so often supplements are unnecessary
A, C, D, E, K, and the B-complex vitamins
Your body needs at least 11 specific vitamins
Individual calorie requirements are calculated based on sex and age at three activity levels:
Active:
more than 3 miles per day at 3–4 mph
Moderately active:
equivalent to walking 1.5 miles per day at 3–4 mph
Four main goals:
Meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Reduce intake of foods containing added sugars and solid fats and reduce overall sodium and refined grain consumption
Move toward a more plant-based diet composed of nutrient-dense foods
Recommendations for specific groups:
Children and adolescents
Older adults
Pregnant and breastfeeding women
Overweight adults & children
People with chronic conditions
DASH Eating Plan:
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
Vegetarians need to make sure their diets provide the energy intake and food diversity necessary to meet dietary guidelines
Regulated by FDA
*Look for foods with no more than 30 percent of their calories from fat
Institute of Medicine found these labels provide little guidance and cause confusion.
Recommended
a standard for FOP labels
FDA’s authority to regulate health claims on front-of-package (FOP) food labels is limited
2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes new requirement:
All chain restaurants provide calorie labeling on their menus.
Use safe food practices & store food safely, especially leftovers.
Food infection:
food poisoning in which food is contaminated by disease-causing microorganisms, or pathogens
Examples:
E. coli, salmonella, campylobacter
Pet food can contain salmonella
Safety assessed by FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)
60% of processed foods in supermarkets contain one or more GM ingredient
Many crops are already GM
Modern biotechnology faster & more refined
Selective breeding
Look for foods that are not only organic but also locally grown
Research has not demonstrated health benefits, but environmental benefits are clear
USDA regulates labeling
Animal foods raised on organic feed without antibiotics or growth hormone
Wash organic produce thoroughly
Probiotics:
living bacteria that may aid digestion
Scientific studies have not confirmed health benefits
When fresh produce not available, people don’t have opportunity to choose a healthy diet
Synbiotics:
combine the two
Prebiotics:
nondigestible carbohydrates that fuel probiotics
Fast foods
Overconsumption of energy bars, energy drinks, and relaxation drinks
Food intolerances such as lactose intolerance are less severe
7% of children, 2% of adults have food allergies
Food allergies and food intolerances
High-sodium diets
Understanding nutritional terms
Types of nutrients
Current Trends & Concerns
Dietary guidelines
No class on Friday!!!
Watch "Forks Over Knives" documentary
Link will be posted on blackboard by Friday
Full transcript