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Life in Ancient Athens

5th Century B.C.
by

Yvette Garza

on 4 April 2013

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Transcript of Life in Ancient Athens

Beards - never mustaches
HIMATION - Normally white wool /older men, colors / younger men
CHLAMYS - Fancy Cape What's in a name? Olympian Gods and naming competition for the city
Between Poseidon and Athena
Athena won with olive tree
Owl - official pet of Athens 5th Century B.C. Life in Ancient Athens Geography City-State: ATTICA - Home of Athens The People of Athens: Social Structure Citizens Triangular Peninsula into the Aegean Sea Weather: Moderate - January 48°F / Summer 82.5°F. ~ Average rainfall: 16.6in Plenty of sunshine! The People of Athens: Dress and appearance -MALES- -Females- Were allowed to wear yellow
STOLA - Greek dress
Hair curled and knotted in bun w tiara or band. The Chiton - Worn by both sexes Inherited - granted by birth
DEMES - trace lineage
Approx 100,000
Both rich and poor Metics Resident aliens
Citizenship only granted for unusual circumstances
A few thousand
Many very wealthy Slaves Many races and nationalities
Majority from Asia Minor - some greek prisoners of war
Treated relatively well - as members of family
Approx 200,000 or more The People of Athens: Government and Civic Duties What is a Direct Democracy? Resolutions passed by direct vote of the people DEMOCRACY - (Demos means people / Kratos means authority) BOULE (Council of 500) - Run the business of the city - Meet in the Bouluterion Generals - Ten of the most important officials of the state (strategoi) - Command army, navy, foreign affairs. Jury Duty - 200 to 1000 names pulled each day Treasurers, auditors, supervisors for buildings , markets, and port authority. The People of Athens: Male and Female Social Structure Only males could own property
Females could not appear in court
Females could not make binding contracts Males received formal education; women did not. Males came and went as they pleased; Women could not leave the home without permission from a male. Business in Athens The Agora Literally means "gathering place" Stoas Merchants Shrines and sculptures Gymnasia Schools Sanctuaries Temples Bouleuterion where the Council met Public offices Government and law courts Located at the foot of the Acropolis Business in Athens: The Assembly Ecclasia on the Pnyx Pnyx hill is about quarter mile west of Acropolis
Occured 40 times a year and only male citizens participate
The purpose: to direct the democratic government
Participation and voting is mandatory
Scythian archers
BEMA - Platform for orator
Famous Orators: Themistocles, Alcibiades, Pericles Excessive wealth was frowned upon
The rich man under financial obligation to the state
Most not rich enough to have slaves do all the work
Most required to spend part of their time in commercial endeavors as managers or workers. Athenian Monuments Most Sacred Building
Built for ATHENA
500 ft over the city
Phidias, Ictinos,
Callicrates The Parthenon / The Acropolis Supreme Judicial Court
Means "Hill of Ares" named after the god of war. Also called Mars Hill Areopagus Hill Monuments of Athens Erechtheion - Religious Temple Festivals in Athens The Festival of Dionysus-
Or The Dionysia T
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S Dramas were commissioned by the state
Dithyrambs - Two choruses by 50 men and 50 boys Women in Athens The Aspasia Auletrides Housewives Stayed at home Had to be domesticated Often married by 15 or 16yrs
Arranged marriages
Responsible for every member of the family HETAIRAI Famous: Lais, Phyrne, Lamia Educated and
worldly Like Geishas T The Temple of Dionysus today THE PANHELLENIC GAMES (including the OLYMPICS) Education in Athens MALES ONLY
Education, sport and leisure for boys
Marriage and domestication for girls
PAIDAGOGOS - Slave that would escort boy to school 3 General eras of Education in Athenian Education: Old period - at the end of Persian wars
Classical Period - from 479 to Macedonian conquest in 338 B.C.
Hellenistic period until Roman conquest in 146 B.C. "THE GOLDEN AGE" "PAIDEIA" - the total environment
"ARETE"- perfection of Greek Character
Grammatists - Literature, History, Reading, Writing
Math with abacus and pythagorean gyommetry EPHEBIC OATH At age 17/18 - trained for military life for next 2 years
Emphasis on physical fitness
Soldiers given seats of honor at theater and festivals CITHARISTS Gymnasiums A Typical Athenian Home Divided into Men's quarters (usually in front) and women's quarters (usually in back)
GYNAICONITIS - Private area like restroom
THALAMOS - Large Bedroom - Family valuables Commerce/Trade/Foreign Relations Strong trade relationships with other city-states due to ideal location Alliance called the Delian League Due to rocky landscape, trade is essential Piraeus Harbor Higher Learning Greeks were the first to observe all matter made of atoms
SOPHISTS - Teachers on the exercise grounds orators - encouraged open inquiry, free mind, liberal arts. Famous Sophists Archimedes Socrates Plato and Aristotle Pericles Pornai Great Panathenaea Religious festival, ceremony, athletic competitions HEKATOMBE PANNYCHTIS PEPLOS Four Year Cycle
(The Olympiad) Panathenic Games - Olive oil Olympic games - garland of olives Pythian Games - garland of laurel Nemean Games - crown of wild celery Isthmian Games - garland of dried celery The end of a Golden Age Pericles governed Athens throughout the 5th century BC bringing to the city a splendour and a standard of living never previously experienced. All was well within the internal regiment of government, however discontent within the Delian League was ever increasing. The foreign affairs policies adopted by Athens did not reap the best results; members of the Delian League were increasingly dissatisfied. Athens was the city-state that dominated and subjugated the rest of Greece and these oppressed citizens wanted their independence. Previously, in 550 BC, a similar league between the cities of the Peloponnessus—directed and dominated by Sparta—had been founded. Taking advantage of the general dissent of the Greek city-states, this Peloponnesian League began to confront Athens. After long lasting series of poorly managed, hawkish policies, (ca. 431 B.C.E.) the city of Athens finally lost its independence in 338 BC, when Philip II of Macedonia conquered the rest of Greece. The End Archemides
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