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Behaviour Cog

Group 1B GTP Presentation 28.02.13
by

Theo Ajetunmobi

on 27 March 2013

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Transcript of Behaviour Cog

Behaviour Perspectives 'Gove'rnment guidance Strategies to deal with low level disruption: The bigger picture: I behave this way because... Child Culture & Race SEN Family Structure Religion & Age Gender The child in context Freize frame Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 15 Have you ever adapted planning to accommodate behaviour? Planning

Bill Rogers, The Language of Discipline – ‘planning’ for discipline:

Engaging and relative curriculum
Differentiation (Teaching Standard 5)
Seating plans and transitions
Not just lesson plans but discipline plans... Language LO: Behaviour and the management of behaviour in the learning environment. Success Criteria? Slide 2 'Behaviour' GTP Presentation 28.02.2013 Group 1B 10:30 - 11:30 Behaviour Perspectives Slide 1 1. BIOLOGICAL:
Genetic/Biochemistry/Brain Anatomy: considers mental disorders to have underlying organic causes e.g. schizophrenia.
This is a medical model which includes observation of symptoms, diagnosis and prognosis. ADHD/ autism may involve abnormal biochemical reactions in the brain and drug therapy may be prescribed but teachers must not discount psychological causes to behaviour. ADHD-Ritalin. Autism identified by Kanner(1943)

2.BEHAVIOURAL:
Classical conditioning(I. Pavlov)/Behaviourism(J.B Watson)/Operant conditioning(B.F.Skinner): considers a person’s behaviour as overt, observable and measurable and is a result of learning. It excludes all reference to cognitive or unconcious processes.
Pavlov dogs conditioning response to bell and food. Teacher shouts ,gains attention, student stops talking,teacher shouts and then points, finally teacher will just point and student stops talking.

Skinner: Behaviours are shaped by environmental stimuli)eg pigeons and food; rats and electric shocks. Reward and Sanctions. Based on Thorndikes Law of Effect ie Behaviour leading to satisfaction is strengthened (treat/sticker/golden time); Behaviour which is ignored or is unsatisfying is weakened. However studentsneed to learn what types of responses are required for reinforcement to occur. Skinner believes that good behaviour can be learned and bad behaviour can be unlearned(adaptive behaviour).
Behaviourist approaches have been developed to respond to the observable( assessment), measurable(record) and intervention( adapting the behaviour by changing the environment).
ABC-Antecedent, Behaviour,Consequence. SMART-Specific,Measurable,Achievable,Relevant, Time- limited.

3. COGNITIVE :
Perceptions,attitudes,images,expectations,attributions and beliefs determine how persons respond to the environment.
4.Social Learning: successes and failures …personal competencies..learning,
5.Psychodynamic; Identifies the origin of the maladaptive behaviour
6.Humanistic: Carl Rogers(1974)to be fully human is to be in a continual state of and Abraham Maslow(1998)…physical safety needs.
7.Ecosystemic
8.Ecological "Teachers are protected,
their authority is respected" Is this how you feel? Talk to your partner beside you. How do the children feel? Slide 5 What the law says: Slide 6 This is how it works in principle. Slide 7 This is how it can be in reality... So how do we get the buggers to behave? Slide 7.2 Slide 8 Rogers - Fundamental Phases : Slide 9 Week 3 onwards Week 2-3 Week 1-2 Student Behaviour Agreement Teacher discipline plan COHESION PHASE CONSOLIDATION &
MAINTENANCE PHASE ESTABLISHMENT
PHASE Getting their attention: Slide 10 Thumbs up, Thumbs Slide 11 5 P's Slide 12 Charlie Taylor: Behaviour checklist for teachers :

In the Classroom
Know the names and roles of any adults in class.

Meet and greet pupils when they come into the classroom.

Display rules in the class - and ensure that the pupils and staff know what they are.

Display the tariff of sanctions in class.

Have a system in place to follow through with all sanctions.

Display the tariff of rewards in class.

Have a system in place to follow through with all rewards.

Have a visual timetable on the wall.

Follow the school behaviour policy. Some causes: Slide 14 Teacher Actions Tactical Ignoring
Differentiate between primary and secondary behaviours (Bill Rogers)
have a plan for individuals – targets and boundaries

Consistency
‘Follow up’ (Bill Rogers) – across the school as well as in the classroom

Composure
Teacher composure – assume control – Canter’s ‘Assertive Discipline’
Use specific techniques, e.g. speaking slowly when agitated

Classroom Setup
Preventative measure – avoid potential problems (resources, seating, transitions)
Frederick H. Jones sets this as a primary ‘layer’ in effective behaviour management

Class roles and responsibilities
An incentive and stake in democratic community Challenging behaviour: What you cannot do! What you can do! Extreme behaviour Slide 17 The use of force to control or restrain children. A child is committing a criminal offence.

A child is injuring themselves or others.

A child is damaging property, (including their own property).

A child is engaging in any behaviour prejudicial to maintaining good order and discipline at the school or among any of it’s pupils, whether that behaviour occurs in a classroom during a teaching session or elsewhere. What we can and cannot do. The use of Reasonable force We can use ‘reasonable’ force if. . . Physically interpose yourself between the pupils Tell the children to stop.

Avoid giving the impression that you have lost your temper.

You are allowed to physically separate in this instance. Alternative views Slide 14 Can you change these negative statements to positive?
 

“Stop playing with that pen and hand it to me now.”

 
“Why are you throwing the pencil around the room?”
  

“Can you sit back at your table and stop talking to him please?”
  Any Questions? Theo Ajetunmobi
Tarah Butler
Clare Erman
Deborah Phillips
Susan Pomponi
Bryan Upfield The bigger picture: I behave this way because... Child Culture & Race SEN Family Structure Religion & Age Gender The child in context Slide 3 'Gove'rnment guidance Is this how you feel? Behaviour can be multifaceted, therefore it demands a multifaceted approach tailored to each child or school environment. Strategies to deal with low level disruption: Slide 15 Have you ever adapted planning to accommodate behaviour? Planning

Bill Rogers, The Language of Discipline – ‘planning’ for discipline:

Engaging and relative curriculum
Differentiation (Teaching Standard 5)
Seating plans and transitions
Not just lesson plans but discipline plans... Language Directed Choices

“....... or ........”

Using Questions

“What is the class rule on ....?”

Redirection

“You are calling out. Raise your hand so I can hear your ideas.”

Positive Responses

“Thank you .... and .... for sitting so patiently with your hands up. That’s lovely to see.” Apologies to the faint-hearted.. and how to have more of them. American Educational Psychologist, Alfie Kohn offers an alternative view on Behaviour Management. Kohn Kohn’s 20 years of research in a......

According to Kohn Rewards and Punishments are forms of bribery and manipulation, which do not allow children any room to express their own character or learn to take responsibility for their own behaviour. He argues behaviour cannot be controlled and you can only get short term compliance using such techniques.

Also, scientific studies show when we are given a reward for something we enjoy doing, our enjoyment of the task dwindles. Studies also show children who have been conditioned by rewards are less likely to take risks with their learning and think creatively. Alfie argues most of us may benefit from ‘emptying our cup’ before considering the following..... Challenging Students Alfie asks us to consider the following -Do we want to teach children to comply and do what we want them to do with the least fuss?
OR
Do we want to help our children become creative thinkers who are allowed to take responsibility for their own learning and who are intrinsically motivated to do so? Are we in the teaching profession for them or for us? This only happens in learning environments which are non-judgemental and where ‘class rules’ have been agreed upon by all members of the learning environment democratically.
How many of us work in schools where this is in practice? According to Kohn.... Is there any benefit of giving stickers to children who are clearly engrossed in discovering something for the first time?

How many of us have needed to bribe a child to do something they really want to do or talk about something that makes them feel good? Kohn asks.... If what they are learning is of interest...or you make it interesting– you don’t need the stickers- Rewards/Punishments/Bribes – Who remembers Bowes Primary?

Kohn also argues some children only misbehave to get a response, to see where you sit - if they see you are not there to judge them - chances are they will not go out of their way to try to give a reason to do it! They won’t need to test you out with bad behaviour! So ..... what does this mean? Option one
If you are happy with your Behaviour Management – You don’t need to consider Mr Kohn’s theories. No need to change - Carry on what you have been doing – dishing out stickers, ‘ruling the waves’ and teaching them to ‘please you’– (you’ll only need to worry when the stickers no longer motivate!).

Option two – Investigate Kohn’s theories further....
Google ‘Alfie Kohn’ or read one of his 12 books – highly recommended are: Unconditional Parenting – Moving from Rewards and Punishments to Love and Reason (2005), Punished by Rewards – The Trouble with Gold Stars, Praise and Other Bribes (1993), or Beyond Discipline from Compliance to Community (ASCD, 1996).
Go online ‘Alfiekohn.org. Possible to download a number of published articles such as ‘Motivation from the Inside Out: Rethinking Rewards, Assessments and Learning’, ‘Beyond Bribes and Threats: Realistic Alternatives to Controlling Student’s Behaviour. Passion Participation Praise Pace Purpose Blackpool primary school 'locked up' pupil
26 February 2013
A headmistress and five teachers at a Blackpool primary school have been suspended while police investigate allegations that a child was locked in a small room as punishment for “challenging behaviour”. Article 28: of the United Nations Conventions (Right to education):

Discipline in schools should respect children’s dignity. For children to benefit from education, schools must be run in an orderly way – without
the use of violence. Any form of school discipline should take into account the child's human dignity.

Therefore, governments must ensure that school administrators review their discipline policies and eliminate any discipline practices involving physical or mental violence, abuse or neglect.

(Unicef 1989) In 2005 the Government commissioned a report on school behaviour and discipline.
The report by Sir Alan Steer: Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned.
Stated then that overall standards of behaviour achieved by schools are good. UK Government guide to behaviour and discipline in schools, issued in 2012, refers to the legislative history relating to behaviour management in schools.

Education Act 1944
Childrens Act 1989
Education Act 1996
School Standards & Framework Act 1998
Education Act 2002
Childrens Act 2004
Education and Inspections Act 2006
Education Act 2011 - section dedicated to discipline and behaviour including clarification of the right to search and restrain pupils. Traits that teachers associate with students who they believe to have behavioural problems:
Lazy
Unmotivated
Belligerent
Aggressive
Angry
Argumentative A behavioural problem is:
any behaviour that interferes with the teaching act interferes with the rights of others to learn, is psychologically or physically unsafe or destroys property. Examples of Problem Behaviour outside the Definition:
daydreaming
not being prepared for class
refusing to turn in homework
giving the teacher “dirty looks”
reading a magazine in class Motivational problems: difficulty in initiating, participating in, and/or persevering with learning or classroom activities. Some causes of motivational problems:
low self confidence
low expectations of success
lack of interest in academics
lost feelings of autonomy
achievement anxieties
fear of success or failure teacher
doing
nothing + Motivational problems must be properly addressed so that they do not develop into behavioural problems. = Disruptive behaviour:
reduces time spent on learning.
encourages misbehaviour in
on-looking students because of the ripple effect.
may cause fear in other students,
which can result in decreased school attendance and academic achievement. Three Key Questions: Is there a behavioural problem?

If there is a behavioural problem, who is exhibiting it?

Is the behaviour problem a discipline problem or is it another kind of problem? "Sometimes certain children are on the warning lots". "Being unkind everyday - people coming to find you to be unkind". "Yes, K pulled me and Mrs P talked to her"
(Incident or Bullying?) "That everyone is kind and you can be happy and learn". "The teachers make me feel safe".
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