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3.2: China Limits European Contact and 3.3 Japan Returns to Isolation
Transcript of 3.2: China Limits European Contact and 3.3 Japan Returns to Isolation
3.3: Japan Returns to Isolation
3.3: Japan Returns to Isolation
3.2: China Limits European Contact
Earned position after leader committed seppuku
Invaded Korea, sights on China
Daimyo ally of Hideyoshi
Evolution of the Shogunate
“There is nothing we lack, as your principal envoy and others have themselves observed. We have never set much store on strange or ingenious objects, nor do we need any more of your country’s manufactures.”
Daimyo ally of Hideyoshi (Ieyasu) unified Japan
Developed culture – kabuki, haiku
Upheld Chinese traditions
Strengthen policy of isolation
Kowtow – Dutch vs. British
Official policy vs. reality
Contributions to China
Gains in return
Vassal states and other nations paid
Respect, acknowledge submission to China
Exclusive trading rights
Zheng He voyages
Ming - Tribute System
Did the Chinese discover America???
Qing (Manchu) (1644 – 1912)
Macau today – the Las Vegas of the east
First full European map of China
Ming (1368 – 1644)
Review/check your homework:
Describe achievements of the Ming Dynasty
Zheng He’s Treasure Fleets
Explain why and how China isolates itself during the Ming and Qing Dynasties
Canton, Macau, Ningbo
Additional Qing restrictions
Ming and Qing China
How was society structured during the Shogunate period?
Explain the impact of European contact with Japan
How did the Tokugawa Shoguns change Japan’s foreign policy and why?
Closed Country Policy
Japanese Isolation (corr. 108-113 in text)
• As we had previously mentioned, European expansion and progress happens at roughly the same time period where other parts of the world start to either stagnate or isolate. Generally isolationism not good for a country because there is a lack of new ideas introduced.o Middle East reaches peak in mid to late 1500so India reaches peak in late 1600so China isolates self during early 1400s, isolates self more during 1600s• Same basic pattern happens with Japan – traditionally isolated, contact with the west, then isolation again
(corr. P. 102-107)
Portuguese traders/explorers first arrive in 1514.
- They basically monopolized trade with China until the Dutch arrived in the 1600s.
• Kicked out of Canton for not following rules.
- Rented storage warehouses in Macau
(eventually rented whole town for ~45lbs of silver per year). Ended up becoming a virtual Portuguese colony.
- Huge Portuguese influence today.
• Portuguese bring missionaries wherever they go. Begin to convert some Chinese to Christianity which many Chinese officials greatly resent.
- lowered taxes, stabilized the northern border, and embraced some European developments in medicine, weapons, math, and science, by having Jesuits live at his court
• Qing continued Ming policy of isolation (ramped up restrictions)
- until mid 1800s.
Felt that China was center of the world and if other nations wanted to trade they had to listen to their rules:
o Referred to foreigners as barbarians
a. Forced all Europeans to kowtow to ruler
i. This means bow and grovel at feet
ii. Literally translates to mean “knock ones head”
b. Greatly angered Europeans but had to be civil in order to
gain favor and trade
c. Had to speak Chinese
Life in Ming and Qing China:
• Most people lived as they always did – in poverty as peasants living in large family homes or compounds. (Today over 70% of China’s population is farmers. During Ming and Qing era, # more close to 90%.
o Rich landlords dominated everything, used peasants almost like animals
o Upper classes high standard of living in eastern cities
• Country extremely patriarchal (male dominated)
o Concubines common – rich men have live in mistresses that were viewed as part of family
o Arranged marriages
o Infanticide of girls common
o Peasant women work the field, manage finances, and raise children
o In upper classes, foot binding very prevalent – generally a show of wealth. Practiced from 900s -1949.
o Confucianism is unifying cultural theme.
• Humble origins.
- Lineage of peasants that had rose to command rebel army that drove out the Mongols
• Original Ming emperor Hongwu (very wise)
– encouraged fish farming, improving irrigation, creating merit based civil service exam,
and supported the arts. Ming dynasty very well known for gorgeous porcelain and other
luxury goods produced during era
Next Ming emperor Yonglo
- Wanted to impress world with power and splendor of Ming China
o Moved capital to Beijing (Peking) and ordered the Forbidden City build there.
- Largest palace complex ever built.
- Took 14 years to build from 1406-1420.
- Called the forbidden City because only imperial family and advisors were allowed in
– no foreigners or commoners.
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Yonglo sent Admiral Zheng
He on series of at least 7 treasure fleet voyages
• Zheng He himself was the son of Mongols and converted to Islam.
- To rise high in rank, however, a person had to be a eunuch Zheng underwent this procedure.
Three purposes for expeditions:
• Map and explore world
– also try to figure out longitude which they didn’t
• Put other cultures in awe of China’s greatness
– gave out gifts of silver, silk, and other luxuries to show China’s strength
• Get more countries into China’s tribute system
– they would establish trade, get country hooked on Chinese goods, then create and imbalance of trade where China was selling more than it was importing. This would result in other country relying on China so much that they would have to listen to what China wanted which included paying tribute for right to trade.
Fleets over 300 ships with treasure ships that were over 400 feet long. (floating city)
- Support ships carrying water, doctors, religious leaders, ambassadors, concubines, ect.
• Established stopover spots for resupply and trade in places like Malacca and Calicut.
- Made it as far as Eastern Africa
Some theorize that some voyages may have navigated the globe and even found America, but unable to prove definitively
• Ships generally followed currents. Currents flow from w. Africa to pacific
• Dialects of people in south America similar to Chinese. DNA similar
• Early maps that reflect accuracy of new world, drawings of animals extinct by time Europeans arrive.
• Asiatic chickens in south America
• Corn and sweet potatoes in Philippines.
At end of voyages, China begins to isolate self
o Felt fleets and foreign trade wasted resources
- could be used on defending self from northern attacks and for helping countryside
• Spent significant wealth modernizing Great Wall.
o Theory/story is that a fire swept the newly built forbidden city after a lightning strike.
Emperor took this as a sign from ancestors that they didn’t approve of voyages and
foreign influence so he ordered records destroyed and shipbuilding areas demolished
• To this day very little evidence survives from Zeng He’s fleets
Qing Dynasty (1644-1912)
• By the 1600s bad harvests and famines plus high taxes resulted in civil unrest in China.
- 1644 the Manchus (north) invaded and established the Qing dynasty
• Added Taiwan, Korea, Tibet, Mongolia, and parts of central asia to their empire making it one of largest in china’s history
- Ethnic Chinese hated them at first, but eventually started to win them over.
Ming foreign policy:
o Wanted to keep outside contact to a minimum – corrupting influence
o Only allowed foreign trade by government agents and in three coastal cities
– Canton, Macao, and Ningbo.
- China had much in the way of luxury goods while other nations had little.
- China would usually demand silver as payment or other valuable resources.
3.3 Japan Returns to Isolation
Powerful Tokugawa shoguns worried about Christianity and foreign ideas disrupting their country.
In 1639 they instituted the “Closed Country Policy”
o Foreigners only allowed to trade in Nagasaki, but only the Dutch and Chinese allowed.
- English left by themselves and Spanish and Portuguese kicked out
o Japanese also forbidden to leave to prevent the introduction of foreign ideas.
o Japan would remain in isolation until 1850s
As previously mentioned, European expansion and progress happens at roughly the same time period where other parts of the world start to either stagnate or isolate.
Isolationism not good for a country because there is a lack of new ideas introduced.
o Middle East reaches peak in mid to late 1500s
o India reaches peak in late 1600s
o China isolates self during early 1400s, isolates self more during 1600s
Same basic pattern happens with Japan
– traditionally isolated, contact with the west, then isolation again
Japanese Isolation notes – corresponds with p. 108-113 in text
• How was society structured during the Shogunate period?
o Shoguno Daimyo
o Samuraio Bushido Code
• Explain the impact of European contact with Japan
• How did the Tokugawa Shoguns change Japan’s foreign policy and why?
o Closed Country Policyo Nagasaki
Background on Japan:
• Japan unified country from about 500AD onward by Yamato clan.
- Leaders became emperors of Japan (divine relation of the sun god).
- Viewed as infallible.
- Family line still rules today (Over 125 monarchs)
* longest continuous monarchy in world history. (Ceremonial today)
- Japan a clan based society
- Kept the peace was the fear of angering a divine being.
- Capital city Kyoto.
Confucianism was introduced to Japan placing great emphasis on honor, family, loyalty, and obedience.
Japanese society resembled feudalism in Medieval Europe
o (Technically) Emperor was on top – divine
o Emperor selected the Shogun to lead – whoever was in control of land around Kyoto
o Country divided into large chunks of land ruled by Daimyo – landowning lords
o Daimyo employed Samurai and had complete control over them to do their bidding.
- Built large castles similar to Europe (Many became cities)
o Under Samurai were the peasants who worked the land, paid taxes in food, and received protection
o Next came artisans who produced art and things of beauty
o At the bottom of Japanese society was merchants
– Did not produce anything that contributed to life (held in low esteem)
Even though Japan was united under an emperor, most of their history is constant fighting between clans over
influence with emperor
Minamoto family seizes land around Kyoto.
Emperor at time forced to name him shogun
(commander in chief)
Emperor became a ceremonial and spiritual leader
Shogun is the political and military leader.
Bushido Code – a warrior code that was confucianist in nature.
Controlled Japanese society
o Stressed utmost loyalty to Daimyo
o Honor – never surrender
o Don’t disgrace self
o Daimyo could require samurai to commit seppuku
– ritual suicide that was meant to redeem honor. Had to commit without showing much pain
During 1300’s unity of the Shogunate system breaks down
Next 250 years are almost constant war between Daimyos.
- Called the “warring states” period.
- Rival shoguns claiming power.
- It is during this period of chaos that the Portuguese arrive in Japan
1543 - Portuguese arrive in Japan
(Sailors from wrecked ship wash up on shore)
o Merchants arrive with clocks, glasses, tobacco, firearms, and other luxuries.
- Japanese eager to trade
o Daimyo wanted to purchase cannons and muskets to use against rivals.
- Eventually began own production
o Portuguese set up treasure fleets between China and Japan.
- Acted as middle man (enormous profits)
o Portuguese also brought Jesuit missionaries.
- By 1600 300,000 japanese had converted to Christianity
Powerful Daimyo Tokugawa Leyasu defeated rivals and reunited Japan under a powerful shogun
o Required all Daimyo to live every other year in his new capital at Edo (Tokyo).
- When home, their families had to remain in Edo as hostages
o Tokugawa worried about Christianity’s growing power and that it would lead to uprising and
- Banned Christianity in 1612.
o In 1637, the next Tokugawa Shogun began mass persecutions of Christians after revolt by
mostly Christian daimyos and peasants.
- To keep officials from trying to seize more power, not be able to pass along wealth.
Question # 1
What religion was introduced to Japan in 500 AD?
In Japan, who is seen as having a devine relationship with with the Sun God and was therefore the leader.
Who had the real power (political and military) within Japanese society?
Samurai lived by what code?
A. Honor Code
B. Faith Code
C. Hindu Code
D. Bushido Code
By the 1600's Japan decided to close themselves off from the rest of the world becasause...
A. Western culture was barbaric
and ruining their culture
B. Christianity had the potential to
over throw the government
C. Japan was in a weak position
and afraid of anymore European involvment
D. All the above