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Robert Rescorla and the Expectancy Theory
Transcript of Robert Rescorla and the Expectancy Theory
The Contingency Model
Robert Rescorla (1967,1988)
Classical Conditioning - learning by association.
Rescorla thought that certain associations that were reliable, allowed for prediction, would strengthen the expectancy behavior.
He exposed rats to a series of electrical shots (the unconditioned stimulus) that were followed by a tone (the conditioned stimulus) either on all or most occasions.
One group of rats: had electrical shocks
time after tone.
Another group of rats: had electrical shocks mostly after tone but
The rats whose shocks were always followed by tone learned a conditioned response to the tone alone. The other rats did not. This is due to the reliability of the stimulus.
Expectations or thoughts influence learning. Behavior depends on understanding the relationship between the stimuli.