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Transcript of Muslim Civilizations
Muslim archers on horseback were much faster warriors than India’s war elephants
Indians were also battling against themselves along with the Muslims
Many Hindus converted to Islam
In 1398, the sultans were overthrown:
India was fragmented again
This time into rival Muslim and Hindu groups
The most memorable leader was Shah Jahan, grandson of Akbar, who ruled over India at the height of its development of literature, art, and architecture.
His wife Mumtaz Mahal died while giving birth to their fourteenth child.
Shah spent a year mourning her death
He built her a grand tomb, designed by Persian architects and using Muslim script and minarets
The Taj Mahal
Another duty is
“Struggle in God’s service”
Usually a personal duty for Muslims
Focus on overcoming immorality
Can be interpreted as a “holy war”
To protect Islam and the Muslim community
A jihad cannot be declared by an individual, it must be declared by the community.
Muhammad was troubled by the greed of the Meccan society
He would travel to caves to meditate, to be away from the evils of the world
When he was 40, an angel from heaven spoke to him:
He was instructed to be a messenger of God
Born in the city of Mecca:
The city was a thriving market town
Pilgrims traveled to Mecca to pray at the Kaaba (an ancient pagan temple)
Worked as a shepherd, and led caravans across the desert
When he was 25, he married Khadija:
Wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan
The position of women in Islam varied at the time:
Muslims conquered many people
As they conquered other cultures, their traditions fused with Islam’s
The Qur’an prohibits killing of daughters, granted women an inheritance, allowed women to reject a marriage offer
The veiling of upper-class women and secluding them in a separate part of the home were Persian customs
Customs of Women
Western Europeans had the Common Law.
Byzantines had Justinian's Code.
The Roman Catholic Church had Canon Law.
The Muslims have Sharia:
Regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, government and other aspects of life
Muslims, Jews, and Christians all worship the same God.
The Qur’an teaches that Islam is God’s final and complete revelation.
Jews and Christians are considered “People of the Book”
Their stories are included in the Qur’an
Because of this, Jews and Christians are tolerated by the Muslims
People of the Book
All Muslims must perform five basic duties:
Declaration of faith
Pray five times daily
First they must wash, then pray in the direction of Mecca
Many gather and pray in mosques
Give charity to the poor
Fast during the “holy month” (Ramadan)
The month where Muhammad received his instructions from God
Pilgrimage to Mecca
The Five Pillars of Islam
Many chapters of the Qur’an (of which there are 114 of) follow Christian and Jewish tradition:
Adam is known as the first prophet
Suhuf Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham)
Tawrat (Torah or Pentateuch) of Moses
Zabur (Book of Psalms) of David
Injil (Gospel) of Jesus
These are often alternate versions of the same stories
Books of the Qur’an
Islam is monotheistic.
– the sacred text of Islam:
Literally meaning "the recitation"
People are responsible for their own actions
Priests do not mediate between people and God
People speak directly to God himself
God has sent other prophets
Abraham, Moses, and Jesus
Muhammad was the last and greatest prophet
What Does Islam Teach?
Muhammad was able to convert many to Islam in Medina
Meanwhile, the Meccans grew more hostile towards Muhammad and his Muslims
In 630 A.D., Muhammad was able to retake the city of Mecca from the merchants
He destroyed the pagan idols in the Kaaba temple
He believed the temple was created by Abraham to worship God (Allah)
Mecca and the Kaaba became the most holy place in all of Islam
Creating a Religion
Muhammad tried to spread Islam throughout Mecca
The merchants were angry with him for disrupting their businesses
They threatened to kill him in 622 A.D.
Muhammad and his followers fled Mecca, and traveled to the city of Yathrib:
Their journey became known as the hijra
Yathrib later became called Medina:
City of the Prophet
622 A.D. became the first calendar year of the Muslim calendar.
Offending the Merchants
Muhammad was terrified of becoming a messenger, or
He was illiterate
Khadija encouraged him to accept God’s command.
She was the first to convert to Islam
Islam – “to submit to God”
(God) The Arabic word for God is Allah.
Becoming a Messenger
The Qur’an is a guide to life:
Emphasizes honesty, generosity, and social justice
Sets harsh penalties for crimes
Everyone will stand before God on judgment day and either face eternal punishment in hell, or eternal bliss in paradise (heaven).
All converts to Islam must learn to speak Arabic.
What Does Islam Teach?
Muhammad became known for his honesty in business
Was a devoted husband and father
Followers are called Muslims (“One who submits to God”)
Developed in Southwest Asia, in the Arabian Peninsula
Muhammad (b. 570 d. 632)
The Origins of Islam
Muslims and Hindus were coexisting in India (until the Mongols, that is).
1536: Mongols came in to India and set up a new dynasty
Mughal = Mongol in Persian dialect.
They were led by Babur, who was supposed to have descended from Genghis Khan:
After many years, another ruler, Akbar, would bring the Hindus and Muslims together by reforming the government and tolerating all religions
The Taj Mahal
What’s the difference between Hinduism and Islam?
The Muslims Defeat the Hindus
India had always gone back and forth between an organized government and splitting into many regions.
The last major dynasty to unite India was the Gupta Empire:
In 711, the Arabs conquered the Indus Valley
Muslim rulers of regions were called
Muslims in India
Over time the Muslims began to accept the Hindu rulers:
Hindus were allowed to worship freely as long as they paid taxes to the Muslims
Many lower class Hindus converted to Islam because of openness and rejection of the caste system
Eventually, the two religions merged into one and took ideas from both:
Belief in the "Unity of God"
Belief in reincarnation
Rejection of castes
Development of a “New” Religion
Baghdad was established as the greatest Muslim center of learning
Muslims developed Algebra
Advances in medicine:
Physicians and pharmacists had to pass a test before they could practice their medicine
Hospitals were set up
Europeans began to attend Muslim medicine schools to learn their practices
Muslims Seek Knowledge