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Europe and Russia

Topics on: geography, cultures, 4 regions, and history

Ben Werner

on 31 May 2013

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Transcript of Europe and Russia

:Is a gemorphological (scientific study of land forms and how they are made) region in Europe. It consist of the low plains between the Central European Highlands to the South and the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the North.These two seas are seperated by the Jutland Peninsula. The North European Plain is connected to the East European Plain, combined they make up the European Plain. The elevation is between 0 and 650 feet. Its is mostly used as farm land. Russia and Europe Geography History Physical Map of Europe Political Map of Europe The 4 main regions in Europe/Russia: North Western Highlands, North European Plain, Central Uplands, Alpine Mountain System. Mountains in Europe/Russia Pyrenees Alps Balkans Carpathians Ural : It is a range of mountians in Southwest Europe that was formed naturally are formed between France and Spain. The highest peak is 11,169 feet tall. : The Alps are of the largest mountain range in Europe. From Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzwerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west. They were formed when the Oligocene and Minocene plates were pushed together. :Is a mountain range in the eastren part of the Balkan Peninsula. The highest peak is 2,376 meters which is 7,795 feet. :The Carpathian Mountains are the second largest mountians in Eurpoe, stretching 932 miles long and 8,530 feet tall at its highest peek. The Carpathian Mountains stretches through about 7 countries and is broken into three parts, the Western Region, Eastern Region, and the Southern Region. and is home to brown bears, wolves, lynx, and chomois. :The Ural mountains run North and South through Western Russia. The Ural Mountains run from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River. Rivers Rhine River :The river flows through the Swiss Alps to the Netherlands. It is the longest and most important river in Europe. Its length is 766 miles long. It is so important because it flows deeply into Europe to bring goods. Thames River :Is a major river that flows through sourthern England. It goes through the center of London. Danube River :The Danube River is the second largest river in Europe, it begins in the Black Forest and ends in the Black Sea. The Danube River flows for 1,170 miles and passes through 9 countires. Volga River :The Volga River flows through Western Russia into the Caspian Sea. The Volga River is connected to the Balctic Sea, the Volga river also freezes 3 months out of the year, and is not navigable. Peninsulas Iberian :The Iberian Peninsula is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes statses Portugal, Spain, Andorra, the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar and a very small part of France. It is the second-largest peninsula in Europe.With an estimated of 220,000 square miles. It is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Balkan :The region of southeastern Europe. It takes it's name from the Balkan Mountains. The region has a combined area of 212,000 square miles and has a population of 55 million people. Italian :The Italian peninsula is one of Southern Europe's largest peninsulas. The Italian Peninsula is 1,000 kilolmeters(620 miles) and is bordered by Tyrannanian Sea to the West, Lonian Sea to the South, and the Adriatic Sea to th East. given the peninsulas's shape it has the nickname Lo Stivale (The Boot). Seas Mediterranean Sea :The Mediterrean Sea is connected to the Atlantic Ocean. It is almost completely enclosed by the land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe, on the South by North Africa. It covers 965,000 square miles. It's deepest point is 17,280 feet. It is an important route for merchants and travelers that allowed them to trade even in the ancient times. North Sea :The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Britain and Scandinavia. It is conneted through the English Channel in the South and the Norwegian Sea in the North. It is more than 600 miles long and 360 miles wide with an area of 290,000 square miles. It has long been the site of important European shipping lanes and fishing. Its deepest point is 2,379 feet. Aegean Sea :It is a smaller section of the Mediterrean Sea. The Aegean Sea is located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, by Greece and Turkey. In the North it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea. The sea covers an area of 83,000 square miles and the deepest point is 11,624 feet, east of Crete. Geographical North European Plain Baltic sea The Baltic Sea is located in the Baltic Sea region. This 9 part region consists of the countires: Sweden, Finland, Poland, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Lativia, Lithuania, and Russia. The Blatic Sea is 1600 km long and 193 km wide. The Baltic Sea region is home to 85 million people, and it drains into the Kattegat Sea. Adriatic Sea The Adiatic Sea seperates the Italian and Balkan Penninula. The Adriaic Sea is 770 km long and 160 km wides out of all the 1246 isalnds, 66 are inhabitated. Bay of Biscay The Bay of Biscay is aslo known as the Cantabrian Sea, it is located on the western coast of France, and to the south of the Celtic Sea. The Bay of Biscay is about 86,000 feet wide, and is about 1,744 feet deep in most places. The weather in the bay is usually a little ruff and is particularly bad in the winter. The English Channel The English Channel is part of the Atlantic Ocean and seperates Britian from France. The English Channel is about 560 km long and about 240km wide, and it covers about 75,000 feet in surface area.The English Channel is home to about 3.5 million people if you include both shores. Northwestern Highlands :The Northwestern Highlands stretch across far North Europe. It has steep slopes, thin soil, there is not good farming and very few people live there. It is a region of old mountains that have been worn down by wind and the weather. But the people there raise goats and sheep, especially in Spain and Scotland. North European Plain :It covers more than half of Europe. The plains cover most of Russia that is located in Europe and reaches all the way to France. This region has the most productive farmland and also the largest cities in Europe. The Central Uplands :Are a region of highlands, which are made up of mountains and plateaus (which are large raised area of land that one of it's sides is on a steep cliff). Mostly the land there is rocky and not very good for farming. But the region is good for mining, industries, and tourism. The Alpine Mountain System : The Alpine Mountain System streches from France to the Balkan Peninsula. They include the Alps, which is the tallest mountain in the system(15,782 feet). Some families have small farms in the mountain's valleys and meadows. Ancient Greek Influence Roman Influence Inventions Achievements Beliefs Inventions Achievements Beliefs Democracy :Is a kind of government in which citizens govern themselves. Every citizen in Athens voted on there laws and government policies, or methods and plans a government uses to do its work. The citizens were either elected or chosen at ramdom for the government positions. The "Golden Age" : Happened during 479 to 431 B.C. Where literature, arts, and philosophy also flourished. The Greeks studied the nature of animals, plants, and the human bodies. In the process the Greeks developed ways of thinking that still influence life today. Spreading of Ideas Renaissance The renaissanced started around 1300 A.D. and it hit its peek in 1500 A.D. The renaissance was a revolution in art, culture, and literature. During the renaissance many great things took place such as Christopher Columbus making his way to what is now America, and establishing trade and outposts in America. And also many literal arts boomed in interest. poets, artists, and authors started producing more work and at higher quality. One thing that contributed to the interest in literature was the invention of the printing press. In Europe's major cities there were maybe a couple thousand books, because all of the books had to be written by hand, but since the invention of the printing press its estimated that every major city had about 9 million books. plus with this increase of books, more people learned to read and write, which may be cause in poetry at an all time high in interest. Architecture also took off, such as the tempietto where St. Peter was put to death, or the temple of Vesta which is a shrine. Many change in monarchy and governtment started to change too. The Feudal system started to go away and the three layer social class was out into effect, the upper class, middle class, and lower class. Because of the decline of feudalism, kings started to gain moe power over the feudal lords. : Thanks to Alexander, later known as Alexander the Great, who helped spread the Greeks ideas. At the age of 20 he became the king of Macedonia, in northern Greece. But he was unhappy with ruling a small kingdom. In 334 B.C., he set out to conquer the known world at the time. In the short period of 10 years Alexander had conquered an empire almost the size of the United States. In all of Alexander's conquered land, he established Greek cities, the Greek language, Greek religions and Greek ideas. The Tumbler Lock : Locks were invented before this but the Greeks improved the lock greatly. Maps : Many people believe that the first map was created in 6200 B.C. But they believe that the Greeks created the first map and the person who did was Anaximander. The Steam Engine : Heron created the first steam engine as a toy. The steam was generated by a pot filled with water and covered then put on a fire. The pot was connected with two tubes and allowed the stea to flow through it make it rotate. Temple of Vesta Tempeietto Math Improvements :Thanks to the Greeks, the 17th century advances so far in mathematics. Galileo, Johannes Keples, and Bonaventura Calalier in geometric mechanics, that was possible from the inspiration of Archimedes. Purists for example Christiaan Huygens and Isacc Newton insisted on the Greek geometric style as a model of rigour. The Diophantus's work is in Pierre de Fermat in his researches in algebra and number theory. Science Advancement : Archimedes discovered the physical law of displacement, which is when an object moves the same volume of water as the object which is in. In the Greeks time they have found out the answers to questions that troubled many. Many of them helped us out by figuring out the basics to what we know now. Astronomy : There were many important discoveries in astronomy that the Greeks made. Aristarchus was the first person the suggest that the earth revolved on an axis and moved around the sun. Anaxagoras discovered that the moon reflected the sun's rays and the causes of eclipses. Russia's History Invasion and expansion Harsh treatment of common people Autocratic Government Ivan the forth became more powerful position of the monarch and he made sure that he kept the power by ruthlessy getting the nobles to obid him, if not he would kill them. Stalin was a dicator who wanted the Soviet Union to become more industerous developed. So he took land from the peasants and gave them to the farmers. If anyone would opposed the plan which did, he would send them to prison camps in Siberia. Rome was a very advanced empire for its time, creating many new inventions, such as the aqua ducts, a written system of laws, paved roads, and many more. Aqau Ducts The Aqau Ducts were a series of passage ways that allowed water to travel into Rome's empire. The Aqau Ducts allowed Rome to also have plumbing, which meant better toilets, tubs, sinks, and anything that was water related. The water would come down from the mountains and flow into Rome. Written Laws Rome had a system of laws called the Js.ustinian code, after emperor Justinian, it was after a thousand years of studying law that the Roman laws were made. The Romans had laws tha covered all sorts of things such as buisness laws, criminal laws, laws on how to use different objects, and even laws on how one. Groups of people known as Slavs lived in small settlements. In 1200s, Mongol invaders from Asia conquered them. The prince of Moscow was very clever with his agreements with the Mongols that helped him become rich and powerful. By the 1330s he was the strongest ruler in the region and by the end of the 1400s, they freed themselves from Mongol. In the 1540s, Ivan the forth became the leader of Moscow. Ivan called himselve a tsar of emperor. He expanded Moscow's control to the territories in to its south and east. Peter the Great believed that Russia needed to have a good seaport to become a world power. So they conquered land on the Baltic and Black Sea and moved the capitol to St. Petersburg. Later Russia conquered territories in present day Poland, Turkey, China and Sweden. In 1941 the Germans invaded the Soviet Union. Three million German soldiers, with tanks and airplanes went deep into the Soviet Union. The Germans distroyed many cities and millions of soldiers died or were captured. By 1943 the Soviets began pushing the Germans out of Russia. In 1945 the Soviets had captured Berlin. Paved roads The romans were the first culture to have paved roads that helped for all types of things, such as travel, trade, military movement, and to decorate the city and make it look nicer. The way the Romans would make the roads is that they would pave the roads with flat stones side by side or somewhat spaced apart, to form a flat surface. These roads were built through cities, and throught hills even, the Romans would not stop at anything to get the roads bulit. Military The Roman military was called the Roman Legion, The Roman legion was the most powerful army of its time trained in the most up to date battle tactics and equiped with the most advanceed weapons the Roman legion helped rome stay on top for over 2,000 years. To be in the Roman Legion there were many rules and training you had to go through, such as marching 20 miles a day in full gear or if the camp was near a lake or river, the soldiers would have to learn to swim and swim everyday. Weapons training was also a major part of a roman soldiers life, the roman soldiers had to practice fighting with big wooden shields and swords so that in combet the soldiers regular weapons would feel light and, in theory, more effective. A man named Vladimis Ulyanav also known as Lenin. He joined with the Germans after he was let ou of Russia. Then he came back and took over the Russian government. He made Russia into a communism country and started to spread the idea. That was why they invaded other countries at the time. Then once Lenin died Josef Stalin became the dicator over Russia. So mostly the Russian's governmentt has been bad and not everyone could become wealthy. Slow westernization Russia had slow westernization because of their leaders throughout their history. Most of them were very selfish and didn't care about the common people. The tsars did not care about the common people or their citizens. Christianity was a big religion in Rome and is one of the many things that made christianity so popular. Christianity was spread throughout Rome and throughout its vast empire by conquering new territories and countries. Christianity was such a popular religion that even one of Romes emperors became a christian and influenced people to become christians, but only when christianity became to strong, did it start to become out lawed in Rome. Due to the popularity of christianity and its many extreme followers did it start to challege the governmet of Rome. When Christians started to act against the Roman government they were punished and out-lawed. Jesus Christ one of the leaders of Christianity was crusified by the Romans and killed, but Christianity still continued on and even into today Christianity is a big part many cultures. Christianity Medicine Hippocrates also known as "Father of Medicine" created the Hippocratic Oath. The Hippocratic Oath is an oath that all doctors have to take.
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