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Transcript of American Revolution
Concord: Started on April 18,1775- After the Battle of Lexington, the soldiers marched to Concord and another battle occurred.
Trenton: December 26, 1776- General George Washington crossed the Delaware River north of Trenton, New Jersey, and caught the British off-guard after they had enjoyed a Christmas feast. Almost two thirds of the 1,500 British were captured. The American victory inspired rebels in the colonies.
Princeton: January 3, 1777- General George Washington's revolutionary forces defeated British forces near Princeton, New Jersey.
Saratoga: September 19 and October 7, 1777- A turning point in the war. The battles were fought 18 days apart on the same ground. First battle: British victory & Second battle: American victory. The British surrender October 17.
Yorktown: September 28 to October 19, 1781- Last Battle of the American Revolution and the British Surrender. Battles of the American Revolution American Revolution ABC Book By: Raina Lowery and Sami Anderson U.S. History 8 The Adam's Family Samuel Adams played a role in many of the events which contributed to the Revolution including organized opposition to the Stamp Act, protests waged by the Sons of Liberty, and the Boston Massacre. John Adams was a lawyer and politician, defended British soldiers after the Boston Massacre, a member of the Continental Congress, representing Massachusetts, strong supporter of independence. Abigail Adams was the wife of John Adams, served as confidant and support while he served in the Continental Congress, when John and others were considering a declaration of independence, Abigail reminded him to take care of the women, who would not hold themselves bound by laws in which they had no voice; “Remember the ladies” 1.) 2.) 3.) Abigail Adams John Adams Samuel Adams 2nd Continental Congress The colonies declared independence. Declaration of Independence July 4th, 1776
Written by: Thomas Jefferson &Benjamin Franklin
Reaction to King George III’s refusal to acknowledge the colonial requests and demands, “dissolve the political bands” with Britain, provided philosophy for the establishment of the new nation, “all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”, and listed grievances against the King of England.
At first this was just a letter sent to the King to see if he approved. Once it was approved it became a law. Europeans Help Out! The Marquis de Lafayette: France: A French aristocrat who played a leading role in revolutions in France and in the American Revolution. He respected the concepts of liberty and freedom and constitutional government. Between 1776 and 1779 he fought in the American Revolution, commanding forces as a major-general in the colonial army. Important because France joined the Colonists against the British. Bernardo de Galvez: Spain: Spanish nobleman who became governor of the Spanish province of Louisiana (January 1777), protected American ships in the port of New Orleans and helped transport war supplies, and took up arms and fought to protect Louisiana. Founding Fathers The founding fathers included many people but these are the top ten of the fathers that had the biggest impact on the American Revolution. George Washington
Gouverneur Morris Civic Virtue is the cultivation of habits of personal living that are claimed to be important for the success of the community. The founding fathers contributed to civic virtue because they thought civic virtue was important for a republican government because people with civic virtue are interested in having the government help all the people. George Washington A resident of Virginia, he was a surveyor, a planter, a soldier in the French and Indian war, a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses, commander-in-chief of the Continental army during the American Revolution, and the chairman of the Constitutional Convention in 1787. Heroes of the War John Paul Jones - Founder of the U.S. Navy and led raids on British vessels during the American Revolution
Francis Marion - Considered one of the fathers of modern guerrilla warfare, and is credited in the lineage of the United States Army Rangers
Daniel Morgan - Introduced an entirely new type of army in the Revolutionary War. He taught his men to hide in the forest and await the British soldiers to cross the road in front of them so that they could shoot at them. This was an entirely new battle strategy since the soldiers were used to standing in a line across the battle field shooting at each other. Nathaniel Green - American general who had a large hand in bringing about the final surrender of British General Cornwallis at Yorktown. He followed and trapped Cornwallis into surrendering.
Nathan Hale - American patriot who was hung for treason by the British. He had served in the militia in the early days of the war and volunteered for surveillance activity. Undercover as a Dutch schoolmaster, he got information on British troop movements and was headed to the American side of the line when he was captured.
Ethan Allen - He led an invasion of Montreal that failed miserably and was captured. He was later freed in a prisoner exchange. He was commander of the Vermont militia and a leading voice for Vermont's becoming a state. Instruments of War Muskets: The most commonly used firearm during the Revolutinary War was the muzzle-loaded musket, because muskets could be fired as fast as every 15 seconds., or 45 shots per minute, which gave anyone using one a big advantage.
Cannons: The cannon was a highly effective weapon throughout the Revolutionary War and was key to the American victory. Though it took as many as 14 soldiers to operate, a cannon could fire projectile for hundreds of yards and hit dozens of enemy soldiers in a single shot. Thomas Jefferson Early and effective leader in the American Revolution. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia and in 1776 he was a member of the committee which wrote the Declaration of Independence. Chief writer of the Declaration of Independence, which was approved by the delegates. Redcoats King George III Feared that the loss of one group of colonies would lead to the loss of others and the eventual decline of the empire. To prevent this, the Crown maintained an agressive policy against colonial resistance. George III struggled to enforce royal authority throughout his reign. Liberty Bell Mapping the American Revolution Newsmakers of 1776 John Hancock - Signer of the Declaration of Independence who was also a wealthy Massachusetts merchant who liked to defy the British authorities. He was also President of the Contintental Congress and governor of Massachusetts. Main contribution to the American Revolution was using his fortune to help finance the struggle. Phyllis Wheatley - She gained her fame throughout her poetry, which became well-known throughout the 13 Colonies. She published her first poem in 1767. Six years later, she became the first African-American and third woman to publish a book in the United States. This was the famous Poems on Various Subjects. It was one of the first books published by anyone in the Colonies. She also wrote a poem to George Washington, to inspire him at the beginning of the Revolutionary War. Mercy Otis Warren - Wife of a Massachusetts Patriot, anonymously wrote several propaganda pieces supporting the Patriot cause. Wentworth Cheswell - African American Patriot, like Paul Revere he made an all-night ride back from Boston to warn his community of the impending British Invasion, served in the army and fought at the Battle of Saratoga. Friedrich von Steuben: Germany: A Prussian-born military officer who served as inspector general and Major General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He is credited with being one of the fathers of the Continental Army in teaching them the essentials of military drills, tactics, and disciplines. He wrote the Revolutionary War Drill Manual, the book that served as the standard United States drill manual until the War of 1812. He served as General George Washington's chief of staff in the final years of the war. Bells were an important symbol during the Revolutionary War. There were several bells in Philadelphia that colonists feared the British would seize to melt down for ammo. A group of farmers were sent over 50 miles in their wagons to try to save the bells, which was a daunting task as many of the bells were heavy and housed in steeples. The bell in the State House weighed 2080 lbs alone. After a difficult journey through British lines, the bells all arrived at Northhamptontowne (now known as Bethlehem). The bell from the State House, which had inscribed upon it the words "Proclaim Liberty throughout all the land", was hidden under the floor of the Zion High German Reformed Church. Many years later this bell was returned to it's home. The name of the State House became Liberty Hall and the bell became known as the Liberty Bell. The Libery Bell was used as an alarm clock, curfew announcement and a form of communication through the town. Eventually a new bell was made to replace the original one, and after one strike of the clapper, the bell cracked. A new foundry a few blocks away had been recently opened by John Pass and John Stowe. Pass and Stowe melted the original bell down, added more copper, made a new mold and started from scratch. The bell continued to have history even after all of this. It was used to gather the citizens for the reading of the Declaration of Independence. It was also a symbol of the Anti-Slavery Society in the 1830's. The Liberty Bell throughout history has continued to be recognized as a symbol of freedom throughout the country. Patriots Patrick Henry: A member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, spoke against the Stamp Act, famous quote, "Give me Liberty or give me death," during the Revolution he served in the Continental Army. Crispus Attucks: A black man, became first casualty of the American Revolution, when he was shot and killed in what became known as the Boston Massacre Haym Solomon: A Polish born Jewish immigrant to America who played an important role in financing the Revolution, arrested by the British as a spy, used by the British as a interpreter with their German troops, helped British prisoners escape, encouraged German soldiers to desert the British army, became a broker to the French consul and paymastered to the French troops in America Patriots Benjamin Franklin: A member of the committee which wrote the Declaration of Independence but spent most of the period of the American Revolution in France. He represented the colonies as the American envoy starting in 1776 and remained until 1785. He negotiated the alliance with France and then the Treaty of Paris which ended the war. Paul Revere: He was an American silversmith, early industrialist, and a patriot in the American Revolution. He is most famous for alerting Colonial militia of approaching British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride." Revere was a prosperous and prominent Boston silversmith, who helped organize an intelligence and alarm system to keep watch on the British military. Revere later served as a Massachusetts militia officer, though his service culminated after the Penobscot Expedition, one of the most disastrous campaigns of the American Revolutionary War, for which he was absolved of blame. Following the war, Revere returned to his silversmith trade and used the profits from his expanding business to finance his work in iron casting, bronze bell and cannon casting, and the forging of copper bolts and spikes. Finally in 1800 he became the first American to successfully roll copper into sheets for use as sheathing on naval vessels. QUOTES "Taxation without representation is tyranny." -Patrick Henry "Give me liberty or give me death." -Patrick Henry "These are the times that men try men's souls." -Thomas Paine "I have yet begun to fight." -John Paul Jones "I desire that you would remember the ladies." -Abigail Adams "There! I guess King George will be able to read this without glasses." -John Hancock -Nathan Hale "I regret that I have but one life to lose for my country." Howe: William Howe was one of the British generals during the Revolutionary War. He was born on August 10, 1729, in England. He was the illegitimate uncle of King George the Third, who was the British king during the Revolutionary War. Before he was sent to fight in the war, Howe was sympathetic to the colonists. But, as a soldier, he had to fight against them. Led the Battle of Bunker Hill Burgoyne: A British army officer, politician and dramatist. Burgoyne is best known for his role in the American War of Independence. During the Saratoga campaign he surrendered his army of 5,000 men to the American troops on October 17, 1777. Appointed to command a force designated to capture Albany and end the rebellion, Burgoyne advanced from Canada but soon found himself surrounded and outnumbered. He fought two battles at Saratoga, but was forced to open negotiations with Horatio Gates. Although he agreed to a convention, on 17 October 1777, which would allow his troops to return home, this was subsequently revoked and his men were made prisoners. Burgoyne faced criticism when he returned to Britain, and never held another active command. Cornwallis: A British Army officer and colonial administrator. In the United States and the United Kingdom he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence. His surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the Siege of Yorktown ended significant hostilities in North America. Seeing action in the Seven Years' War. Upon his father's death in 1762 he became Earl Cornwallis and entered the House of Lords. He saw military action in 1776 in the American War of Independence. Active in the advance forces of many campaigns, in 1780 he inflicted an embarrassing defeat on the American army at the Battle of Camden, though he surrendered his army at Yorktown in October 1781 after an extended campaign through the Southern states which was marked by disagreements between him and his superior, General Sir Henry Clinton (which became public knowledge after the war). Spies and Traitors of the War Benedict Arnold: A general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army. While a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fort at West Point, New York, and plotted to surrender it to the British forces. After the plot was exposed in September 1780, he was commissioned into the British Army as a brigadier general. His actions included the Capture of Fort Ticonderoga in 1775, defensive and delaying tactics despite losing the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain in 1776, the Battle of Ridgefield, Connecticut (after which he was promoted to major general), operations in relief of the Siege of Fort Stanwix, and key actions during the pivotal Battles of Saratoga in 1777, in which he suffered leg injuries that ended his combat career for several years. Despite Arnold's successes, he was passed over for promotion by the Continental Congress while other officers claimed credit for some of his accomplishments. Adversaries in military and political circles brought charges of corruption or other malfeasance, but most often he was acquitted in formal inquiries. Congress investigated his accounts and found he was indebted to Congress after spending much of his own money on the war effort. Frustrated and bitter, Arnold decided to change sides in 1779, and opened secret negotiations with the British. In July 1780, he was offered, continued to pursue and was awarded command of West Point. Arnold's scheme to surrender the fort to the British was exposed when American forces captured British Major John André carrying papers that revealed the plot. Upon learning of André's capture, Arnold fled down the Hudson River to the British sloop-of-war Vulture, narrowly avoiding capture by the forces of George Washington, who had been alerted to the plot. Arnold received a commission as a brigadier general in the British Army, an annual pension of £360, and a lump sum of over £6,000. He led British forces on raids in Virginia, and nearly captured Thomas Jefferson, and against New London and Groton, Connecticut, before the war effectively ended with the American victory at Yorktown. In the winter of 1782, Arnold moved to London with his second wife, Margaret "Peggy" Shippen Arnold. He was well received by King George III and the Tories but frowned upon by the Whigs. Because of the way he changed sides, his name quickly became a byword in the United States for treason or betrayal. His conflicting legacy is recalled in the ambiguous nature of some of the memorials that have been placed in his honor. James Armistead: A slave in Virginia Marquis de Lafayette recruited him as a spy for the Continental Army. Posing as a double agent, forger and servent at British headquarters, he moved freely between the lines with vital information on British troop movements for Lafayette, contributed to the American victory at Yorktown. Treaty of Paris of 1783 Independence recognized, boundaries extended to Canada in the North, the Mississippi River in the West, and Florida in the South Order of Events United States of America Valley Forge After suffering several defeats, Washington took his army to Valley Forge for the winter of 1777, there he men were trained and became more of a professional army (rather than militias), the winter was harsh and men suffered from starvation and frostbite Writing of the Articles of the Confederation Occurred at the Second Continental Congress (1776), created a new form of government of the independent colonies, included one branch- a Congress including one represenative from each of the former colonies X-tra! Read All About It! Thomas Paine: Propagandist and journalist, wrote pamphlet "Common Sense" persuading Americans to join the Patriot cause "Common Sense" : The main idea of common sence was to show the colonists why to declare independence. Battle of Yorktown Surrender of Cornwallis brought end of war. Zealous Armies Works Cited wikipedia.com google.com wiki.answers.com Our textbooks sparknotes.com 1763 -
Proclamation of 1763 becomes law. 1765 - The stamp act is passed. 1767 - Townshend Acts are passed. 1769 - Spanish begins to establish military posts and missions in California; Daughters of Liberty 1770 - Boston Massacre 1773 - Boston Tea Party 1774 - Intolerable Acts are passed; First Continental Congress meets 1775 - Battles of Lexington and Concord 1776 - Declaration of Independence signed. 1766 - Stamp act repealed; Declaration Act passed 1764 - Sugar Act 1772 - Committees of Correspondence Colonial Army Both British Army Before the War After the War We had the 13 colonies We gained about 3 new territories
Virgina grew Well trained, led, and equipped
Did not fare well from England and home
They were more sophisticated
They had the latest guns supported from King George III
Little training and supplies
Had will to fight the British
When they were at war they lived close to America, which made shipping faster
Had a lot of hope Same war
Had training and supplies
Had to ship materials