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Hominid Family Tree - Ana Pantoja
Transcript of Hominid Family Tree - Ana Pantoja
“desert man from Chad” Biological Anthropology
Prof. Cari Lange
Tues/Thurs - 9am
2 May 2013 Is the one of the oldest early humans on our family tree. Individuals of this species were approximately the size of a chimpanzee and had small teeth with thick enamel, similar to a modern human’s. The most important fossil of this species is an upper femur, showing evidence of bone buildup typical of a biped - so they climbed trees, but also probably walked upright. Evidence for this species is very scant, it is made up of 13 fossils, including a partial femur, bits of a lower jaw, and several teeth. is one of the oldest known species in the human family tree. This species lived sometime between 7 and 4.4 million years ago in West-Central Africa. Walking upright may have helped this species survive in diverse habitats, including forests and grasslands. Although only cranial material has been found from Sahelanthropus, studies so far show this species had a combination of apelike and humanlike features. Apelike features included a small brain (even slightly smaller than a chimpanzee’s), sloping face, very prominent brow ridges, and elongated skull. Humanlike features included small canine teeth, a short middle part of the face, and a forward positioned foramen magnum. 7 million years ago
Cranial capacity (CC) of 350 cm
West-Central Africa Orrorin tugenensis
"of the mountains" 6 mya
East Africa (Tungen Hills, Central Kenya)
CC unknown Ardipithecus ramidus "Apelike individual from ....."
5.8 - 4.4 mya
East Africa (Ethiopia)
CC ~500 cm3 The foot bones in this skeleton indicate a grasping big toe adapted for locomotion in trees. The pelvis, reconstructed from a crushed specimen, is said to show adaptations that combine tree-climbing and bipedal activity. A good sample of canine teeth of this species indicates very little difference in size between males and females in this species.
Ardipithecus ramidus had a relatively small brain, measuring between 300 and 350 cm3 similar to that of a chimpanzee, smaller than Australopithecus afarensis 'Lucy' and only 20% the size of the modern Homo sapiens brain. Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus anamensis has a combination of traits found in both apes and humans. The upper end of the tibia shows an expanded area of bone and the orientation of the ankle joint in human-like, indicative of regular bipedal walking (support of body weight on one leg at the time). Long forearms and features of the wrist bones suggest these individuals probably climbed trees as well. 4.2 - 3.9 mya
Eastern Africa (Ethiopia)
CC unknown Australopithecus afarensis 4.2 - 2.9 mya
East Africa (Ethiopia)
CC averages 420 Had a very low forehead, a face that projected far forward, a very prominent brow ridge, a small sagittal crest, and long, strong arms with curved fingers adapted for climbing trees. They also had small canine teeth like all other early humans, and bipedal characteristics including a convergent big toe. Males and females varied significantly in body size, with males standing approximately 4 feet 11 inches tall and weighing 100 pounds and females standing about 3 feet 5 inches tall and weighing about 62 pounds. Lucy Estimated age: 3.2 million years
Date of discovery: 1974
Location: Hadar, Ethiopia more than 40% complete
shows sexual dimorphism
had at least 2 children; had difficult childbirth
Partial skeletons like hers allow us to learn much more about early human body size, shape, and locomotion than more fragmentary and sparse remains. Footprints of Laetoli Estimated age: 3.6 million years
Date of discovery: 1978
Location: Laetoli, Tanzania Bipedal; big toes in line with the rest of foot
Short-stride length; estimated at ~ 4 ft 8 in and 4 ft tall
Footprints are linked to A. afarensis by fossil jawbones of the same species found nearby
Show that the gait of these early humans was "heel-strike" (the heel of the foot hits first) followed by "toe-off" (the toes push off at the end of the stride)—the way modern humans walk. The First Family Contained fossils from 9 adults
and 4 children.
Unknown disaster overcame this
family group, burying them all at the same time.
Allowed to gather insights into the biology and development of a single fossil species
Also provided evidence that this species lived in small groups based on possible family bonds and culture Date of discovery: 1975
Location: Hadar, Ethiopia IMPORTANT FINDS IMPORTANT FINDS IMPORTANT FINDS Australopithecus africanus 3 - 2.6 mya
CC ~440 cm3 Australopithecus africanus was nearly identical in body and brain size to A. afarensis. Modern traits include fully bipedal characteristics, derived teeth, a high cranial vault, and a "power grip" (tendon inside thumb which helps in manipulation). This indicates possible tool use. Primitive traits include a prognatic face, shoulders for brachiating, and long curved toes and finger Taung Child Estimated age: 2-3 million years
Date of discovery: 1924 by Raymond Dart
Location: Taung, South Africa 3-year-old child's skull
petrified right-side of brain
was among the first early human fossils to be found in Africa
and first early human fossil discovery to draw major attention to this region as a place of origin of the human family tree.
Still, it took over 20 years after that before scientists accepted the importance of Africa as a major source of human evolution. IMPORTANT FINDS Homo habilis This species, one of the earliest members of the genus Homo, has a slightly larger braincase and smaller face and teeth than in Australopithecus. But it still retains some ape-like features, including long arms and a moderately-prognathic face. The brain shape is also more human-like. He is called "handy man" because it is thought to be the first stone-tool maker (Oldowan tools) because of the wealth of tools that have been found with its fossils. It is also possible that they may have been using a form of speech to communicate. "handyman"
2.4 - 1.6 mya
Eastern & Southern Africa (or all over Africa)
CC averages 631 cm3 Oldowan stone tools Estimated age: 1.8 million years first stone tools
typically meant for right-handed individuals
These tools, like most others from the same period, were made by chipping pieces from chunks of volcanic rock to reveal sharp, jagged edges. IMPORTANT FINDS By: Ana Pantoja Homo erectus Had a fully modern body with longer legs, which meant that they could have used their more muscular bodies to hunt better and move from place to place, and had signs of sexual dimorphism. They had a distinct heavy pineapple-shaped cranium (pinched occipital), had shovel-shaped incisors, and were probably able to adapt to food sources and other situations brought on by the Ice Age. Homo erectus has been found with culture-indicative items such as: drinking vessels, sewing needles, figurines, "Acheulian" tools, ocean-going vessels, and remnants of fire. Homo erectus walked the earth during the same time as Homo sapiens. 1.8 mya - 10,000 ya
CC 750 - 1250 cm3 Homo heidelbergensis This early human species had a very large brow ridge, a larger brain vault and flatter face than older early human species. It was first early human species to live in colder climates, their short, wide bodies were a likely adaptation to conserving heat. Heidelberg used wooden spears, and it was the first early human species to routinely hunt large animals. They possibly ate marine life and practiced herd driving. They used "Levallois" tools and were the first to build shelters—creating simple dwellings out of wood and rock as seasonal camps, as well as using caves. 600 - 200 yya
CC of 1400 - 1650 cm3 Homo neanderthalensiss 600 - 200 kya
CC of 110 cm3 Some defining features of their skulls include the large middle part of the face and a huge nose for humidifying and warming cold, dry air. Their bodies were shorter and stockier than ours, another adaptation to living in cold environments. But their brains were just as large as ours and often larger.
Neanderthals made and used a diverse set of sophisticated "Mousterian" tools, controlled fire, lived in shelters, made and wore clothing, were skilled hunters of large animals and also ate plant foods, and occasionally made symbolic or ornamental objects and instruments. There is evidence that Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead and occasionally even marked their graves with offerings, such as flowers. What does it mean to be a human? What criteria helps us determine what a hominid is? A subject is distinguished as a hominid from its bipedal characteristics, cranial capacity, dentition, and presence of culture. Works Cited Human Evolution Evidence. Smithsonian National Museum of
Natural History. 2 May 2013. Web. <http://humanorigins.si.
robustus> Origins of Humankind. PBS.com. 2 May 2013. Web.
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/humans/humankind/n.html> All images from Prezi: Google Images Australopithecus robustus A. robustus is an example of a robust australopithecine; they had huge, broad megadont cheek teeth with thick enamel and focused their chewing in the back of the jaw. Large zygomatic arches allowed the passage of large chewing muscles to the jaw and which gave them their characteristically wide, dish-shaped face. A large sagittal crest provided a large area to anchor these chewing muscles to the skull. These adaptations provided A. robustus with the ability of grinding down tough, fibrous foods.
("Robust" refers solely to tooth and face size, not to body size) 2.3 - 1 mya
CC of 410 cm3 Australopithecus boisei A. boisei is similar in body and brain size to A. robustus. They are fully bipedal. Boisei is characterized by a specialized skull with adaptations for heavy chewing. Some features of it's skull, including the large grinding teeth, are even larger than are those of A. robustus. A strong sagittal crest on the midline of the top of the skull anchored the large chewing muscles to the lower jaw, and thus moved the massive jaw up and down. Flaring cheekbones gave A. boisei a very wide and dish-shaped face, creating a larger opening for its bigger jaw muscles to pass through and support its massive cheek teeth. 2.3 - 1 mya
Eastern Africa (Ethiopia)
CC 510 - 530 cm3 Australopithecus aethiopicus The species has a peculiar mixture of primitive and highly derived traits relative to earlier species. Aethiopicus has a strongly protruding face, large teeth, and a powerful jaw. A very large sagittal crest on top of the skull indicates huge chewing muscles. Powerful chewing muscles, paired with the species' extremely large and thickly enameled molars and premolars, suggest that A. aethiopicus ate very tough, grainy foods that required a great deal of processing. 2.7 - 2.3 mya
Eastern Africa (Ethiopia)
CC of 410 cm3 Being human means being self-conscious or self-aware. It is about creativity and individuality within a community. It revolves around being able to adapt to change. BASAL HOMINIDS
Sahelanthropus tchadensis GENUS PARANTHROPUS
Australopithecus anamensis GENUS AUSTRALOPITHECUS
Australopithecis aethiopicus GENUS HOMO
Homo sapiens sapiens
Homo habilis Homo sapiens sapiens We are distinguished by our large brain size, a forehead that rises sharply, eyebrow ridges that are very small, a prominent chin, and lighter bone structure.
Tools became markedly more sophisticated, incorporating a wider variety of raw materials such as bone and antler. They also included new implements for making clothing, engravings, and sculptures. Fine artwork, in the form of decorated tools, beads, ivory carvings of humans and animals, clay figurines, musical instruments, and cave paintings, appeared over the next 20,000 years. 70 kya to today
CC of 1350