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Psychology In Everyday Life
Transcript of Psychology In Everyday Life
How do we prevent procrastination?
Does procrastinating lead to unwanted stress? pro·cras·ti·nate [proh-kras-tuh-neyt, pruh-]
verb (used without object)
1. to defer action; delay: to procrastinate until an opportunity is lost. Hypothesis: If we think we have more than enough
time to do an assignment, then we will
procrastinate and end up doing it with
very little time to finish. Why Procrastinate: An Investigation of the Root Causes behind Procrastination Abstract: This paper examines different theories on the reasons why students procrastinate on their academic assignments. REFERENCES Thakkar, N. (2009). Why Procrastinate: An Investigation of the Root Causes behind Procrastination. Hypothesis: If students fear failure, they will procrastinate on their assignment. Research Question: Why engage in an activity that you know, usually from experience, is bad for you? Findings: Although the fear of failure, self-regulatory failures and low self-efficacy have been linked to procrastination among students, recent research suggests these theories aren't complete because they don't account for task aversiveness or the hyperbolic discounting of time. The Temporal Motivation Theory is the most valid theory of procrastination today because it incorporates the self-regulatory and self-efficacy theories and accounts for task aversiveness and the hyperbolic discounting of time. By understanding the root causes behind procrastination, effective solutions can be invented, researched and spread to stem the tide of procrastination among students and in society. Analysis & Applications Why Not Procrastinate? Development and Validation of a New Active Procrastination Scale Hypothesis: Active procrastination is negatively related to highly structured use of time. Method: Undergraduate business students from a Canadian university were invited to participate in the present study by filling out a questionnaire entitled “Survey of University Students’ Use of Time.” Participation was voluntary, with a raffle of seven $50 U.S. prizes as an incentive. Of the 300 questionnaires distributed, 185 questionnaires were returned (a response rate of 61.7%). This sample was 63% female (n = 115) and 37% male (n = 68). Most participants (96.8%) were full- time students with an average university attendance of 2.8 years. The distribution of the participants’ ethnic backgrounds was as follows: 74.1% White, 1.6% African American, 2.7% Hispanic, and 20% Asian. More than half of the sample (59.4%) spoke English as their first language, followed by French (22.7%) and other languages (17.3%). What they found: It is imperative to possess a well-developed measure of active procrastination with sufficient reliability and validity because the use of inadequate measures presents a serious threat to both the interpretation of study results and the accumulation of knowledge of the phenomenon. Choi, J. N. (2009). Why not procrastinate? Development and Validation of a New Active Procrastination Scale. Findings: Procrastination does reflect an excessive discrepancy between work intentions and work actions, as procrastinators tend to have a larger than average intention-action gap, especially at the beginning of the course. On the other hand, procrastination’s correlations with mood and personality are uncertain as results diverge depending upon whether observed or self-report procrastination criteria are used. Procrastination and Personality, Performance, and Mood Hypothesis: Procrastination research has generated conflicting results, partly due to the reliance on contaminated self-report measures. Methods: One-hundred and fifty-two undergraduates were measured at six time periods during an 11-week introductory psychology course. The course consisted of a computer-administered personalized system of instruction, a system noted for susceptibility to procrastination. Results show that procrastination is an excellent predictor of performance, though some final-hour catching-up is possible. Efforts to clarify its causes were mixed. Steel, P., Brothen, T., & Wambach, C. (2001). Procrastination and personality, performance, and mood. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(1), 95-106. Academic Procrastination: Frequency and Cognitive-Behavioral Correlates Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(4), 503. Findings: Results indicate that procrastination is not solely a deficit in study habits or time management, but involves a complex interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and affective components. Methods: The frequency of 342 college students' procrastination on academic tasks and the reasons for procrastination behavior was investigated. Hypothesis: If an individual develops bad study habits at a young age, they may face more problems dealing with procrastination. The Nature of Procrastination: A Meta-Analytic and Theoretical Review of Quintessential Self-Regulatory Failure Findings: Neuroticism, rebelliousness, and sensation seeking show only a weak connection. Strong and consistent predictors of procrastination were task aversiveness, task delay, self-efficacy, and impulsiveness, as well as conscientiousness and its facets of self-control, distractibility, organization, and achievement motivation. Hypothesis: Procrastination is a prevalent and pernicious form of self-regulatory failure. Research Question: Is there a connection between rebellious attitude and procrastinating? Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological bulletin, 133(1), 65. There is no doubt that everybody procrastinates, no matter the extent. Fortunately there are some basic strategies to help procrastination. Stop thinking, start doing!
Take that first step then dont turn back.
Start with your hardest task of the day
Don't get overwhelmed with whatever it is you have to do
Finish it! Hypothesis Result: Although I personally tend to procrastinate more when I think I have plenty of time, it doesn't happen to be the case for everybody. Most of it is developed over years and we also tend to subconsciously procrastinate to avoid the negative emotions it brings. In easier terms, one of the biggest reasons why people procrastinate is because we don't like negative emotions, we only enjoy the positive ones. Sigmund Freud, an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis, referred to this as the pleasure principle. Evolutionary psychologists believe we crave feeling good emotionally just like we crave sweets and chocolates. Rather than feeling like shit about what needs to be done, we give in to feeling good, so we procrastinate. Even though we might feel guilty about putting off what needs to be done, we feel relieved that we aren't doing it at the moment. Now we get to worry about other things going on and plan on taking care of the task at hand later. Just like meteorologists, we are not very good at affective forecasting. We believe that since we're telling ourselves we'll do it later, we will have the same attitude when the time comes. With the high hopes and intentions of getting our assignment done tomorrow, we end up feeling pretty good about ourselves. PROCRASTINATION