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World War 1 - 1914-1918

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Mark Allen

on 8 September 2014

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Transcript of World War 1 - 1914-1918

In Commemoration of
World War I
War
Time
1914 to 1918
1914
Lest We Forget
1915
1916
1917
1918
1839: Guarantee of Belgian Neutrality.
1873: 'Three Emperors League' Germany Austia-Hungary and Russia pledge Mutual support.
1867: The Treaty of London (establishes the neutrality of Luxembourg).
1870: The Franco-Prussian War.
1871: The Unification of Germany.
28th: Archduke Frans Ferdinand, Heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife are shot dead,
1st: Germany declares War on Russia. Great Britain and France order a general Mobilisation.
2nd: Germany attacks Luxembourg and demands a right of transit through Belgium.
The Road to War 1800 - 1900
1878: Russia withdraws from the 'Three Emperors League' alliance.
1879: The 'Dual Alliance' is formed between Germany and Austria-Hungary.
1882: The Triple Alliance is established between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
1894: The Franco-Russian Agreement.
1883: The Austro-Romanian Alliance is formed.
1888: Wilhelm II becomes the Emperor of Germany.
1889: Start of the Anglo-German 'Naval Race'.
1902: The Franco-Italian Agreement.
1908:Austia-Hungary annexes Bosnia.
1904-5: The Russo-Japanese War, which Russia loses.
1905-6: The First Moroccan Crisis (Tangier).
1907: The Anglo Russian Agreement.
World War I
The Road to War 1900 - 1914

1909: The Russio Italian Agreement.
1911: The Second Morccan Crisis (Agadir).
1911-12: The Turkish-Italian War.
1913: The Second Balkan War (Jun 29 - Jul 31).
1912: The Anglo-French Naval Agreement.
1912-13: The First Balkan War (Oct 8 - May 30).
1913: The First Albanian Crisis (Apr 30 - May 6).
1913-14: The Liman Von Sanders Affair (Nov -Jan).
1913: The Second Albanian Crisis (Sep - Oct).
3rd: Germany declares War on France, having implemented the Schlieffen Plan and invaded Belgium.
4th: Great Britain declares War on Germany. Germany declares War on Belgium, Leige is attacked.
5th: Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany promises to support Austria-Hungary if they take action against Serbia.
25th: Serbian Government starts Mobilisesation; Austria Hungary severs diplomatic ties with Serbia.
23rd: Austro-Hungarian Government present Serbia with a deliberately unacceptable ultimatum.
26th: Austro-Hungary starts to Mobilise against Serbia; Britain suggests a 'Serbian Question' conference.
27th: Germany refuses the idea of a conference; Russia accepts the idea of a conference.
28th: Austria-Hungary declare War on Serbia.
29th: Germany refuse to confirm that they recognise Belgium's Neutrality.
30th: Germany warns Russia to stop their Mobilisation. Austro-Hungarian 'War Production Law' is introduced.
29th: Russia asks Germany to persuade Austria Hungary to show restraint; Russia starts to Mobilise.
31st: Russia orders a full Mobilisation.
in Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princip, one of six assassins, conspiring to create a free Serbian State.
7th: British Expeditionary Force (BEF) arrives in France.
12th: Great Britain declares War on Austria-Hungary.
14th: Battle of the Frontiers begins. France invades Germany via Lorraine.
23rd: Japan declares war on Germany. Battle of Mons begins. BEF engages with German forces.
26th: Battle of Le Chateau. BEF forced to retreat.
26-30th: Battle of Tannenberg, German 8th Army almost completely destroys the larger Russian 2nd Army.
28th: Battle of Heligoland Bight. German High Seas Fleet are trapped in safe harbour by the British Grand Fleet.
31st: Germany continues to move West.

5th: The retreat from Mons ends, this is the end of the Battle for the Frontiers.

6th: Battle of the Marne, advance to the Aisne has begun.
9th: British Passage of the Marne.
12th: Battle of the Aisne a Franco-British counter-offensive starts.
13th: Battle of the Marne ends, stopping the German advance to the West.
15th: Battle of the Aisne counter-offensive has ended.
23rd: The siege of Tsingtau starts, a German sea port in China.
23rd: The "Race to the Sea" begins, outflanking attempts resulted in battles but neither side claimed victory.

4th: A Royal Naval Division arrives to support Antwerp.
10th: Antwerp Surrenders to the Germans. Operations in Flanders begin.
19th: The first Battle of Ypres in Flanders starts. German forces attempt to overcome the Allies Western front.
29th: The Battle of Gheluvelt a pivotal part of the Battle of Ypres.

7th: British and Japanese forces capture the German controlled Port of Tsangtau.
9th: Battle of Cocos, HMAS Sydney sinks the German SMS Emden a Dresden class of light cruiser.
22nd: First Battle of Ypres ends with trench warfare being established on the Western front.
23rd: Portugal agrees to side with the Allies.

1st: Allied invasion of German East Africa. Battle of Coronel off Chile.
2nd: Royal Navy blockade of Germany begins. Russia declares war on Turkey.
3rd: Allied fleet attacks Dardanelles Forts, Battle of Tanga (German East Africa).
6th: Operations against Turkey at Basra, Mesopotamia commenced.

8th: Battle of the Falklands, three German Cruisers are sunk by the Royal Navy, the Dresden escapes.
16th: German warships bombard the British East Coast at Hartlepool, Whitby and Scarborough 137 civilians killed.
25th: The Christmas Truce, a series of widespread, unofficial ceasefires .
5 Years - 60 Months
1914 - 1918
261 Weeks - 1826 Days
1914 - 1918
43,824 hrs - 2,629,440 mins
1914 - 1918
Greater than 37 million casualties
during World War I
Over 37 million casualties
1914 - 1918
15th The War Council authorises a Naval attack on the Dardanelles.
19th First German Zeppelin raid on Great Britain, attacks at Great Yarmouth and Kings Lynn.
24th Battle of Dogger Bank between the Royal Navy and the German Navy.
26th Defence of the Suez Canal. German led Ottoman Army advanced from Southern Palestine.
4th Germany announces unrestricted submarine blockade in British waters, starting on 18th.
11th Canadian soldiers land in France.
18th Germany declares that the waters around Great Britain to be a “War Region”.
'Neutral ships enter British waters at their own risk'.
18th Germany planes bomb Colchester.
28th US Congress creates the US Coast Guard.
10th - 13th The Battle of Neuve Chapelle, ammunition shortage led to the Shell Crisis of 1915.
10th RFC bomb raids on rail installations, maps used were drawn from aerial photographs.
5th German Zeppelin destroyed, crashes near Ostend after being hit by gunfire.
31st Germany uses Xylyl Bromide gas for the 1st time, against Russian soldiers on the Eastern front.
1st The British ship Falaba is the First Passenger liner sunk, on board was the first US casualty.
14th The Dresden a light cruiser and Germanys last cruiser at sea is sunk in Chillean waters.
15th SS Blonde is the first merchant ship to be attacked by aircraft.
22nd Two Zeppelins attack Paris.
25th German submarine U-29 captures and sinks Dutch SS Medea after a "Stop and Search".
26th French Airmen bomb Metz.
22nd Germany uses Chlorine gas for the 1st time, against Allied soldiers on the Western front.
Reports emerge of Muslim Turks massacring 800,000 Christian Armenians.
17th - 22nd the second battle of Ypres, German forces capture hill 60.
24th Battle of St Juliens, part of the second battle of Ypres.
More than 16 million people died
during World War I
Over 20 million people were wounded
1914 - 1918
How many lost?
1914 - 1918
How much did they lose?
14th German Zeppelin raid on Tyneside.
31st German Zeppelin raid on London .
26th Italy enters the war on the side of the Allies, because of signing the secret Treaty of London.
The German
Schlieffen Plan
for fighting on two fronts, East and West,

has
failed
.
The French
Plan XVII
an offensive strategy for the Franco-German border, has
failed
.
Military actions have occurred around the world, making this the first 'World War'.
A stalemate to the East and to the West of Germany has emerged by the end of 1914.
It looks unlikely that military might alone will win this World War.
It is more likely that social, economic and political factors will decide the outcome.
The conflict has extended world-wide and Germany has lost most of her Empire.
A Naval blockade isolates Germany from the rest of the world.
Why do great Generals persist with frontal assaults, when they do not produce results?
The battle for Verdun followed by the battle of the Somme: 2 million casualties.
This war has become a battle of attrition followed by another battle of attrition.
Germany, re-deploys a million troops released from the Russian front.
The Armistice of Compiègne 11th November 1918. The Treaty of Versailles 28 Jun 1919.
A German spring offensive breaks Allied lines, they get closer to Paris than in 1914.
The Allies counter-attack, the Hindenburg line falls and Germany sues for peace.
Germany, consolidates at the Hindenburg Line and de-restricts submarine warfare.
Flanders, Passchendaele, the third battle of Ypres: Hell on a battle field.
Russian Revoloutions, Feb-Tsar Nicholas II toppled and Nov-Bolsheviks sieze power.
Submarines and the Zimmermann letter, force the U.S. to declare war on Germany.
1916 was not a great year.
The tide of war has so slowly begun to turn.
Great plans for decisive victories have failed; for how long will this war now go on?
Italy has joined the Allies and a flood of colonial troops enter into Europe.
Exactly five years from the death of Arch Duke Ferdinand to the Treaty of Versailles.
Russias Bolsheviks sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
The Paris Peace Conference, six months of negotiations, led to the Treaty of Versailles,
The Armistice of Compiègne had effectively ended hostilities.
4th A kite balloon is used to make artillary observations for the first time.
7th RMS Lusitania is sunk off the Irish coast, by a German Submarine, 1,195 lives lost from 1,959.
9th The Artois offensive starts, a massive French assault attempting to break through German lines.
25th Turkish expulsion of Christians leads to the deaths of 800,000.
7th L37 is the first German airship to be successfully attacked by a RFC fighter.
5th War policy and strategy conference in Calais for British and French Ministers.
18th Russians continue to retreat n the Eastern front.
2nd Great Britain forms the Ministry of Munitions.
9th German forces in South West Africa Surrender.
11th German Light Cruiser SMS Königsberg is scuttled in the Rufiji River.
14th Start of the Austro-German tripple offensive, the Russians retreat.
6th An attempt is made to breakout from Anzac Cove and capture nearby heights, Gallipoli.
6th Troop landings at Sulva Bay, Gallipoli, to support the ANZACs.
10th The Turks have re-taken control of Sulva Bay.
16th Settlements, near Whitehaven, Cumbria are shelled by a German Submarine.
6th Parliament is told that 800,000 Armenians have been massacred over a six month period.
5th 20,000 Anglo French troops land in Greece to support Serbia. The Greek government resigns.
6th German, Bulgarian and Austrian troops invade Sebia.
5th Nish the Capital of Serbia falls to Bulgarian troops after days of heavy fighting.
6th Advance on Baghdad Ends.
7th Ottoman siege of Kut near Baghdad, held by a British Indian Garrison.
19th Douglas Haig succeeds Sir John French as commander of the British Expeditionary Force.
19-20th Allied evacuation of Anzac Cove and Suvla Bay, Gallipoli, no loss of life.
23rd British Naval Operations begin on Lake Tanganyika, Mid Africa.
25th The Second Christmas Truce.
28th Evacuation of the Gallipoli Peninsula ordered.
8th Germany forms a Southern Army to support the Austrians.
12th Allies report that Germany is firing poison shells on the Western Front.
15th Japan serves 21 demands to China.
28th German planes conduct a night raid on Dunkirk.
1st Rationing of flour and bread in Germany.
6th The Winter Battle - German armies are surrounded by the Russians on the Eastern front.
2nd Indian troops and Egyptian artillery deny the Turks at the Suez Canal.
12th 34 British planes raid German held Belgian ports.
11th British blocade of German ports and a reprisals order banning trade with Germany.
19th French and British ships bombard Turkish forts in preparation for an attack on Constantinople.
26th Turkish defence of the entrance to the Dardanelles is cleared.
18th Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish fleet victorious over the Allies, three ships sunk by mines.
9th British and French forces gather near the Dardanelles
25th British, French and ANZAC troops land at Gallipoli, the start of a great disaster.
1st US oil tanker Gulflight is badly damaged by torpedoes from a German submarine off the Scilly Isles.
4th Battle of St Juliens ends.
17th Zeppelins raid Dunkirk and Ramsgate.
19th Turkish attack Anzac Cove.
22nd German air raid on Paris.
23rd Italy declares war on Austria -Hungary, despite having a treaty with them.
6th Zeppelin raids on the east coast of England.
1st Germans use gas in an attack near Warsaw.
25th British coalition government is formed.
22nd Italy starts the Isonzo offensive.
15nd Zeppelin raids on the British North-East coast.
26th Starts of the Battle of Argonne.
29th Start of fierce fighting in Gallipoli.
2nd German Submarine UC2 is rammed by SS Cottingham, code book and papers are recovered.
15th National Registration Act becomes Law in Great Britain.
19th The Chateau at Hooge is blown up by British forces.
22nd Severe losses force the Great Russian Retreat.
27th Warsaw is under attack from all sides.
21st Tsar Nicholas II takes control of the Russian army from Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich.
25th: Winston Churchill proposes a new war front in the Dardanelles, aiming to further divide the German forces.
8-9th Allied evacuation of Helles, Gallipoli, no loss of life.
12th The first enemy ship is sunk by a torpedo dropped from a British Plane.
27th: Allies fall back behind the River Somme.

7-15th: Battle of the Masurian lakes, German 2nd Army removes all Russian troops from German soil .
28th: Battle of the Aisne ends.
29th: Turkey joins the war, Turkish ships attack Russian ports on the Black Sea.
29th: Belgians open the sluice gates around Yser to stop the German advance.
25th: General von Falkenhayn replaces von Moltke as Chief of the General Staff of the German Army.
5th: Turkey joins the Central Powers. Britain and France declare war on Turkey.
15th: The last great German attack at Ypres by the Prussian Guard fails.
23rd: The defence of Festubert, the first attack made by the Germans against a prepared defensive position.
2nd: The Austrian occupy Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
20th: First Battle of Champagne, first Allied offensive after the trenches have been dug.
21st: The first German night bombing raid on Britain, using a Farman MF-11 aircraft.
21st The Winter Battle (2nd battle of the Masurian Lakes) ends, Russians defeated by the Germans.
27th Military Service Act is signed, this will bring conscription to Britain.
31st The Great Zeppelin Raid: Nine Zeppelins raid the British mainland, aiming to bomb Liverpool.
5th Austria invades Montenegro.
15th US identifies German agents operating to keep American troops out of the war.
The Zeppelins mistake Derby for Manchester and move on to bomb Tipton and Wednesbury.
21st The Battle of Verdun starts, lasting for 10 months, it will account for over 1 Million casualties.
24th Marshall Petain takes command of the Defence of Verdun.
25th Battle of Verdun - Fort Douaumont falls, the French are driven out by the Germans.
9th Military Service Act becomes Law in Britain, allowing conscription.
3rd US President Wilson speaks of his Preparedness Campaign in St Louis.
10th German Destroyers sink the minesweeper Arabis, the British Navy is ordered to pursue.
23rd The British Government forms the Ministry of Blockade to exert pressure on the Central Powers.
26th German Submarine U-35 torpedoes the French Liner Provence II in the Mediterranean.
21st Germany informs the US that armed Merchant Ships will be treated the same as Navy Cruisers.
11th To relieve pressure at Verdun, Italy battle with Austria-Hungary to cross the Isonzo River.
9th Newton Baker (a democratic lawyer) is made US Secretary for War.
1st Germany starts a completely unlimited submarine campaign designed to starve Britain into defeat.
9th Rebel General Francisco "Pancho" Villa raids the town of Columbus in the US state of New Mexico.
15th General Pershing leads 12,000 US troops into Mexico to pursue the Rebel General "Pancho" Villa.
15th Austria-Hungary declares war on Portugal.
23rd Portugal, after a British request, interns 36 Central Allies ships in Lisbon.
9th Germany declares war on Portugal followed by Portugal declaring war on Germany.
19th Eight US planes are dispatched to pursue the Rebel General "Pancho" Villa.
31st Germany take Melancourt in the Battle of Verdun.
19th US President Woodrow Wilson speaks to Congress, urging Germany to stop their submarine actions.
15th RFC and RNAS deliver 13 tons of stores to 9,000 men besieged at Kut-el-Amara.
12th US uncover a plot to blow up munition ships bound for the Allies in Europe.
9th A new Germany starts offensive starts at Verdun.
5th First Battle of Kut, an attempt to relieve the defenders of Kut-el-Amara, besieged by the Turks.
4th General Aleksei Brusilov replaces Nikolay Ivanov as commander of the Russian Southern Front.
24th The Easter Rising an Irish Rebellion begins in Dublin, Patrick Pearse is appointed President.
20th Russian troops arrive in Marseilles for service on the Western Front.
20th Germany stops the unrestricted submarine attacks against shipping.
27th British War Minister Lord Kitchener calls for the US to send troops to support the war in Europe.
29th British General Townsend and 9,000 besieged at Kut-el-Amara for146 days surrender to the Turks.
30th The Easter Rising ends with the unconditional surrender of Pearse and his fellow leaders.
25th The Military Service Act comes into effect bringing conscription to Britain.
19th The secret Sykes-Picot (Asia Minor) agreement established between Britain and France.
15th Lord Curzon leads the first Air Board that looks critically at co-ordination between the RFC and the RNAS.
2nd - 12th General Maxwell court marshals Irish rebels, 15 leaders shot at Kilmainham Gaol by firing squad.
3rd Germany makes the 'Sussex pledge' to US, temporarily renouncing its no warning submarine policy.
1st British Summer Time (a daylight saving measure) was introduced by the Summer Time Act.
31st Battle of Jutland between the Royal Navy's Grand Fleet and the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet .
The only Major Sea Battle of World War I (more than 2,500 casualties).
The Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet returns to harbour and stays in port for the rest of the War.
6th Germany captures Fort Vaux during the Battle of Verdun.
5th Lord Kitchener, Secretary for War dies when HMS Hampshire is sunk in transit to Russia.
4th Brusilov Offensive starts on the Eastern front 25,000 Austrian prisoners are taken over two days.
2nd Battle of Mount Sorrel starts with a German offensive near Ypres.
3rd US Defense Act authorises the expansion of the US Army over the next five years.
1st End of the Battle of Jutland, both sides claim to be victorious.
5th - 7th British led Al-Hejaz Arab revolt against the Turks, withdraws a huge Arab support for the Turks.
24th - 30th British Somme Offensive, a week long artillery bombardment precedes the Battle of the Somme.
17th King Constantine of Grece starts the demobilisation of the Greek Army.
25th A Russian Offensive starts in the South in Eastern Galacia .
7th Lloyd George replaces Lord Kitchener as Secretary of State for War.
14th Battle of the Somme, phase 2, starts with the Battle of Delville Wood.
14th British cavalry break through the German lines, Allied victories complete phase 1 of the Battle of the Somme.
3rd Massive RFC support for the battle of the Somme, including Sopwiths with a synchronised gun/propeller.
4th The second Great Russian Advance, sees the Russians drive the Austrians back on the Eastern Front.
1st Start of the Battle of the Somme, phase 1, this will continue with terrible losses through to 18th November.
22nd Bombing of a Preparedness Day parade in San Francisco kills 10 and injures 40.
29th US President Woodrow Wilson lands 330 US Marines in Haiti to “protect American and Foreign” interests.
27th Yanbu, port of Medina, captured by the Grand Sherif Hussein, Emir of Mecca.
30th Bombing of Black Tom Island in New York Harbour, by suspected German saboteurs.
9th The Italians take 10,000 Austrian prisoners when they capture Gorizia.
24th An Anglo-French finance conference is held in Calais.
19th HMS Nottingham and HMS Falmouth are torpedoed and sunk by German submarines, in seperate actions.
3rd Start of the Battle of Romani in the Middle East. The French re-take Fleury on the Western Front.
5th At Romani in Northern Sinai, a British counter attack sees the Turks routed.
1st Fierce Fighting on the Italian front.
27th Romania declares War on the Central Powers.
20th The end of the Russian Brusilov Offensive, along a 300 mile front that destroyed the Austro-Hungarian Army.
25th- 26th Continued Allied advances in the Battle of the Somme, Morval, Thiepval and Combles.
23rd Germany begins construction Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung), changing tactics to defence in depth.
2nd The first Zeppelin is brought down in Britain over Cuffley, Hertfordshire, by Lieutenant Leefe Robinson VC.
15th Phase 3 of the Battle of the Somme starts with the Battle of Flers–Courcelette.
1st Bulgaria declares War on Romania.
27th T. E. Lawrence famous "Take no Prisoners" massacre of Turkish troops at Tafas near Damascus by Arab forces.
21st Austrian politician Friedrich Wolfgang Adler shoots the President Count Karl von Stürgkh in Vienna.
26th - 27th The Battle of Dover Strait, a German attempt to disrupt the Dover Barrage and destroy Allied shipping.
24th New French commander General Charles Mangin, an offensive move, retakes the the fortress of Douaumont.
10th Italian forces win ground, taking 5,000 Austria-Hungarian prisoners in the Eigth Battle of the Isonzo.
15th German submarines return to the policy of Search and Destroy.
1st - 20th Battle of the Somme, Renewed British offensive at Ancre Heights (-11th) and Transloy Ridges (20th).
7th President Woodrow Wilson is re-elected by a narrow margin on a promise to keep the US out of the war.
18th The end of the Battle of the Somme, more than 1 Million casualties from 1st July to 18th November 1916.
13th Phase 4, in the Battle of the Somme, British forces advance along the Ancre River.
2nd Fort Vaux is evacuated by the Germans and taken without resistance, a French patrol finds it empty.
5th Declaration of Emperors Wilhelm II of Germany and Franz Joseph of Austria to establish the state of Poland.
1st Italian front, start of the ninth Battle of Isonzo.
21st HMHS Britannic, sister ship to RMS Titanic, is sunk by a mine (or a torpedo) in the Aegean Sea.
6th Bucharest, capital of Romania falls, it is taken by Austro-German troops, removing Romania from the War.
9th A new British War Cabinet is formed, creating new Ministries for Food Labour and Shipping.
7th George V asked Davis Lloyd George to form a second coalition government to succeed Herbert Asquith.
2nd Herbert Asquith PM agrees to setting up of "a War Committee to handle the day to day conduct of the War.
5th Herbert Asquith resigns as Prime Minister.
1st Allied troops enter Athens to force the surrender of Greek arms and munitions.
12th Western Front - General Nivelle succeeds General Joffre as Commander-in-Chief.
17th The US Government purchases the Virgin Islands from Denmark for $25 Million.
28th The US ends the search for Pancho Villa in Mexico.
22nd US President Wilson calls for 'Peace without Victory', urging peace negotiations in Europe.
10th In response to US President Wilsons 'Peace Note', the Allies agree to form a League of Nations.
16th German Foreign Minister Zimmerman urges the German Mexican Ambassador to provoke a Mexico-US War.
1st Turkey asserts its independence from European Powers.
31st Germany announces the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare as of the 1st February.
28th Germany declares War on Romania. Italy declares War on Germany.
29th General von Falkenhayn is replaced by General von Hindenburg as Chief of the German General Staff.
30th Turkey declares War on Romania.
15th The RFC Middle East Brigade is formed bringing together units in Asia Minor and East Africa.
15th The Great British Advance: Tanks used for the first time, aid an advance along a six mile front on the Somme.
24th HMHS Braemar Castle is sunk by a mine (or a torpedo) in the Aegean Sea.
23th Six German Destroyers bombard the North Downs near Ramsgate, there was no loss of life.
29th Admiral Sir David Beatty takes command of the Grand Fleet, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe becomes First Sea Lord.
28th The first German bomber raid, a single Gotha Seaplane drops six bombs on London and crashes in Boulogne.
2nd Greece is blockaded by the Allies, all Greek ships in Allied ports are embargoed.
1st David Lloyd George resigns as the Secretary of War, citing his frustration with the slow progress of the War.
12th German 'Peace Note', Germany will agree to peace, provided she keeps all territories gained.
14th Greece is given 24 hours to withdraw all troops and cease aggression against allied forces.
20th US President Wilson hands a peace note to all sides, trying to broker a peace deal.
26th Germany replies, proposing a peace conference.
30th France replies for the Allies, refusing, to discus peace until Germany agrees to restore lost liberties,
pay reparations and recognise the independance of small nations.
9th Operation Alberich orders are issued, a German strategic withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line.
23rd No. 100 Squadron formed in Norfolk as the Royal Flying Corps' first night bombing unit.
21st Operation Alberich begins.
3rd President Woodrow Wilson announced to Congress, the US has broken off diplomatic relations with Germany.
3rd US liner SS Housatonic is sunk by a German submarine U-53, about twenty miles SW of the Isles of Scilly.
1st Germany resumes its policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, in man attempt to starve Britain.
24th Britain hands the Zimmerman Telegram to the US, identifing a Germany-Mexico plot for war with the US.
9th Food riots in Petrograd (formerly St Petersburg) Russia.
12th US President Wilson issues an executive order to arm US merchantmen, having failed to win over Congress.
10th Tsar Nicolas II suspends the the sitting of the Gosudarstvennaya Duma, Russias elected legislative body.
4th US Senate adjourns without passing the Armed Ship Bill.
7th President Wilson makes a decision to Arm US ships, 'armed neutrality', despite the refusal by Congress to agree.
1st Zimmerman telegram details are published by the US press. Congress debates the Armed Ship Bill.
15th Tsar Nicolas II abdicates.
7th Cuba and Panama declare ware against Germany.
16th Lenin, transported by the Germans, arrives in Petrograd (St Petersburg).
8th Lenin and other Bolshevik revoloutionaries start their journeys back to Russia.
4th The US Senate pass Wilsons resoloution by 82 votes to 6.
6th The US declares war on Germany.
2nd Woodrow Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany, "The world must be made safe for democracy".
17th French Tanks roll on to the battlefield.
15th The trapped Austro-Hungarian Navy attempts to break through the Allies Otranto Barrage in the Adriatic.
18th US Selective Service Act is signed by the President signifying the start of conscription in the US.
15th Major changes in the French High Command, General Petain succeeds General Nivelle on the Western Front.
3rd A major British attack on the Western Front near Arras breaks through the German Hindenburg line.
10th Britain introduces a convoy system to protect Allied shipping from attack by German submarines.
1st The US Army Expansion Act aims to increase the Army 14 fold, from 0.2 million to 2.8 million.
24th Japanese Destroyers enter the Mediteranean Sea.
13th First German heavy bomber raid on London, the RFC fail to shoot down any of the Bombers, over 500 casualties.
25th The US 1st Division troops start landing in France.
16th The first meeting of the new All-Russian Congress of Soviets is held in Petrograd, only 105 Bolshevik delegates.
7th General Pershing, Commander of the American Expeditionary Force arrives in England, before going to France.
11th King Constantine of Greece abdicates the throne, Alexander his 2nd son succeeds him.
2nd Brasil revokes neutrality and siezes 46 German ships.
29th Greece breaks ties with Germany and Austria-Hungary and declares war on the side of the Allies.
11th US General Pershing estimates that his army will require to exceed 3,000,000 soldiers.
17th Hanover to Windsor and from Battemberg to Mountbatten, King George V changes the royal family names.
16th Russians start to retreat along a 155 mile stretch of the Eastern Front.
7th A 22 aircraft German attack on London causes almost 250 casualties. RFC shoot down 1 German Gotha.
9th HMS Vanguard a British dreadnought blows up at anchor in Scapa Flow, sinking with the loss of 804 men.
1st Massive Russian offensive on the Eastern Front.
19th A resoloution from the German Reichstag calls for a negotiated peace with the Allies.
8th Canada passes the Compulsory Military Service Bill, breaking a No Conscription promise made by PM Borden.
15th Allied assault on the Western Front by Canadian troops near Lens, extensive use of poisonous gas.
14th China declares war against Germany and Austria-Hungary.
2nd Mutiny breaks out on the German battleship Prinzregent Luitpold, in the North Sea port of Wilhelmshaven.
6th Aleksander Fyodorovich Kerensky is appointed Prime Minister of Russia.
1st Pope Benedict XV calls for peace, with no annexation and no indemnity.
16th A large Allied assault near Lens crosses the Steenbeck river to take Langermarck.
15th Alexander Kerensky leads a Provisional Council of 5 that proclaim themselves leaders of a new Russian Republic.
10th Kerenski assumes dictotorship of Russia and proclaims Kornilov a traitor.
8th General Kornilov heads a revolt against Kerenskis Russian provisional government, marching on Petrograd.
3rd The Baltic City of Riga capital of Latvia, falls to the Germans, as the Russians retreat.
4th Leon Trotsky is set free from prison, he was elected to membership on the Bolshevik Central Committee in prison.
2nd Germany starts a series of Air Raids on London and the South East of England.
20st-25th Ypres, Battle of Menin Road (ridge).
8th After the Bolsheviks gained a majority in the Petrograd Soviet, Leon Trotsky is elected as chairman.
19th Bad weather scuppers an 11 Zeppelin 'Silent raid' on the UK, flying at up to 20,000 feet, only seven return.
15th Margaretha Geertruida Zelle MacLeod better known as Mata Hari, is executed by firing squad for spying.
9th The weather, heavy rain, mud, affects the fighting on the western front, Allies capture Poelcapelle.
12th British offensive, the first battle of Passchendaele to capture the strategically important ridge of high ground.
1st German Air Raid on London: 11 killed, 41 injured.
23rd The French take Malmaison Fort, to the west of Chemin des Dames Ridge.
8th The October Revolution (Julian calendar) Kerensky is deposed by Lenin in a nearly bloodless coup d'etat.
10th Bolshevik Vladimir Lenin , succeeds Alexander Kerensky.
9th The Rapallo conference in Italy creates a Supreme Allied War Council, to co-ordinate Allied actions in the West.
2nd Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfours, sends a letter to Lord Rothschild, affirming support for a Jewish State.
6th End of the third Battle of Ypres as the village of Passchendaele is captured by Canadian troops.
1st German soldiers on the Chemin des Dames ridge, abandon their positions, taking up a new defensive line.
15th Former Russian Premier Alexander Kerensky flees Moscow, going to Pskov.
the SS Mont Blanc, a French munitions ship, explodes after colliding with the Norwegian ship SS Imo.
9th Jerusalem held by the Turks for 673 years, surrenders to British Troops.
7th The US declares war with Austria-Hungary.
2nd Russia agrees to a unilateral armistice with Germany, "A shameful peace in order to save the world revolution".
6th Halifax harbor in Canadas Nova Scotia, the most devastating manmade explosion of the pre-atomic age occurs
1st The first Allied Supreme War Council is held at Versailles, it included all Western and Southern front Allies.
16th Russo-German Armistice is signed at Brest-Litovsk.
2nd Air Ministry formed, Lord Rothermere is appointed the first Air Minister.
16th Strikes and Riots in both Vienna and Budapest indicate unrest in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
14th German destroyers bombard Great Yarmouth.
3rd The newly established Air Council takes over all of the functions of Air Board.
4th The British hospital ship "Rewa" is sunk by a torpedo from a German U-boat in the Bristol Channel.
8th President Wilson delivers his 14 points for Peace to a joint session of Congress.
24th Arab forces defeat the Turkish forces near Tafila
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signed on 28 June 1919, 5 years after the death of Arch Duke Ferdinand, 28 June 1914.
26th US President Wilson asks Congress for permission to arm US Merchant Ships, this is refused.
28th US makes public the Zimmerman Telegram, from Germany to Mexico, a plot for war with the US.
16th Russia forms a Provisional Government, headed by Prince Lvoff.
14th China severs diplomatic relations with Germany.
17th The French Prime Minister Aristide Briand is forced to resign, this results in the fall of the French Government.
18th Three US ships were sunk without warning: the Vigilancia, the City of Memphis, and the Illinois.
20th Alexander Ribot succeeds Aristide Briand as the French Prime Minister.
20th US President Wilsons war cabinet votes unanimously to declare war on Germany.
29th US President Wilsons calls for an army to be raised and maintained by selective draft.
1st German submarine fleet cessation of attacking and sinking passenger ships without warning.
4th British liner RMS Hesperian is is torpedoed in the Atlantic, she later sinks on the 6th.
6th Tsar Nicholas II takes the position of Commander in Chief of the Russian Armies.
7th Zeppelin raid on London and the East 57 casualties, but a psychological blow.
8th Zeppelin raid on London and the East again, over 100 casualties, the threat grows stronger.
13th US press report German sabotage in American factories.
25th Battle of Loos begins on the Western front.
25th British Army uses Poisonous Chlorine Gas for the first time.
30th Lord Derby takes control of recruiting in Great Britain.
Great Battles Rage on All fronts.
8th Serbians evacuate Belgrade prior to the arrival of German, Bulgarian and Austrian troops.
12th Nurse Edith Cavell is shot by the Germans for aiding prisoners to escape from Belgium.
13th Zeppelin Raid on London 170 casualties.
12th Bulgaria Declares war on Serbia.
15th Britain Declares war on Bulgaria.
16th France Declares war on Bulgaria. A british submarine sinks five German ships in the Baltic.
29th The French Prime Minister René Vivani is succeeded by Aristide Briand.
11th Advance on Baghdad Begins.
22th Allies beat the Turks in the Battle of Ctesiphon, south of Bagdad.
23rd The Serbian Army is pushed out of Serbia, Serbia falls to the Central Powers.
24th The Serbian Government is exhiled and transfers to Scutari in Albania.
24th 25,000 Germans are lost in the taking of Novi-Bazar in Serbia.
25th The Allies Southern front HQ is set up in Salonika, with the approval of the Greek Government .
31st Germany declares unrestricted submarine warfare against all vessels in the war zone around Britain.
27th German submarines have forced the Allies to divert shipping away from the Suez Canal.
29th Mutiny in the French Ranks, they will defend their lines, but they refuse to attack.
19th 2nd battle of Gaza.
26th US troops arrive in France.
30th Germany attempts to establish a Lithuanian puppet state.
The first week becomes known as Bloody April, the RFC loses 75 aircraft , pilot life expectancy in France is 2 months.
20th Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov, Russian Premier resigns in favour of Justice Minister, Alexander Kerensky.
31st The third Battle of Ypres, also known as Passchendaele, starts in Flanders on the Western Front.
20th Third Battle of Verdun, the French advance over a mile on an 11 mile front.
29th Pope Benedict XV plea for peace is rejected by the Allies.
28th At Verdun the French have re-taken all the ground that had been lost since 1916.
19th A large Italian offensive crosses the Isonzo river on a 30 mile front and forge forward 25 miles.
26th-3rd Oct Ypres, Battle of Polygon Wood.
28th-29th Mesopotamia, Battle of Ramadi, Sir Frederick Stanley Maude leads Allied forces to victory.
31st A new Palestinian offensive starts with the occupation of Beersheba.
28th The Italian Armies are in full retreat, Germany claims to have taken 100,000 prisoners.
24th The weather, in heavy fog the Austro-Hungarians attack Italian positions on a 20 mile front (10,000 prisoners).
25th Italians retreat across the Isonzo river, the Germans take the Bainsizza Plateau (another 30,000 prisoners).
24th British forces approach to within 3 miles of Cambria.
30th Further German attacks push the British forces back.
25th A German counter attack retakes many of the initial Allied gains.
17th British Battle Cruiser HMS Courageous attacks German Mine sweepers at Heligoland Bight in the North Sea.
20th Battle of Cambria starts with a massive tank movement supported by artillary and RFC aircraft dropping bombs.
15th Georges Clemenceau succeeds Paul Painlevé as Premier of France and Minister for War.
22nd Russia opens peace negotiations with Germany, also at Brest-Litovsk.
23rd HMS Torrent, HMS Surprise and HMS Tornado sailing from Harwich are sunk by mines, HMS Radiant survived.
12th A Scandinavian Allied convoy including HMS Partridge is destroyed and HMS Pellew is damaged.
26th Admiral Sir Rosslyn Wemyss replaces Admiral Sir John Jellicoe as Britains First Sea Lord.
28th Civil War in Finland, a Bolsheviks coup in Helsinki leads to a general uprising.
27th The Turkish Dead Sea Flotilla is seized by Arab forces at El Mezraa.
29th US government moves towards Prohibition.
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