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Coral Reefs

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Will Smith

on 7 October 2014

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Transcript of Coral Reefs

Human impact
Food Chain
Primary consumer: Zoo plankton
Secondary consumer: 11-armed sea star
Tertiary consumer: Manta Ray
Quaternary consumer: Tiger Shark

Coral Reefs
Florida Keys
Great Barrier Reef
Neptune’s Necklace
(Hormosira banksii)
-It looks like a string of brown beads, made up of chains of ovoid, hollow segments joined by the constrictions in the stalk
-They attach to the rock by a thin, disk shaped holdfast

Coral Weed
(Corallina officinalis)
They have chalky deposits in their cell walls that give them a hard structure
When it dies, its skeleton becomes part of the sand

Sea Lettuce
(Ulva lactuca)
Lives in shallow areas, where pollution is prevalent
Likes laying on seabeds with lots of holes

Marram Grass
(Ammophilia arenaria)
Tall, spiky grass that is key in building sand dunes - its underground stems spread through loose sand, and upright shoots develop regularly along their length

The underside of the leaf produces a waxy coating to prevent water loss

Sailor’s Eyeball
(Valonia ventricosa)

Dark green marble, consisting of a single cell attached to a substrate (which is often coral rubble) by a cluster of filaments called rhizoids
Younger “Eyeballs” have a bluish sheen but older ones become overgrown with an encrusting coralline red seaweeds
Mauve Stinger
(Pelagia noctiluca)

They are bioluminescent, and often admired by passing boats - their glow is produced when it is knocked by waves
It has eight stinging tentacles, covered by tiny red spots that are bundles of stinging cells - it is a ferocious stinger

Venus Comb
(Murex pecten)
(Coryphaena hippurus)
Common Stargazer
(Kathetostoma laeve)
Ocean Sunfish
(Mola mola)

A reef off the South side of Australia
The world's largest coral reef
Temperature, Light, and Salinity
Between 14 and 33 degrees Celcius
Average visibility is 15 meters below the surface
The best salinity is between 34 and 37 parts per 1000
Plankton Levels
Average amount of plankton required for certain reef species to survive is 1,500,000 plankton per cubic meter
Temperature, Light,
and Salinity
Carnivorous snail with a spine along its longitudinal ridge - looks like a fish skeleton
It can lift the heavy shell above the ground in search for food

Big fish with shimmering colors - all its colors are metallic
Single elongated dorsal fin for stability - a very fast fish

have bitten divers
they have venomous spines behind the gills

worlds heaviest bony fish
makes loud noises in its pharyngeal teeth
Clown fish
Most accessible animal or reef due to living in shallow waters and bright colors
Has built up immunity to the toxin in the sea anemone and uses it for protection
Butterfly fish
have black slits on eye balls to confuse predators
They mate for life
Parrot fish
The fish eats up coral
In Polynesia it is only eaten by the kings
They inflate to puff out their spines to protect themselves from predators
They create venom out of the bacteria in which they eat
venom is stored in 18 spines on its back
their distribution in US waters has cause concern among biologists
(Pterois volitans)
A chain of islands on the tip of the peninsula of Florida.
400,000 parts per cubic meter
Average water temperature: 36 c
salinity: 3.3%

Watercress algae
(Halimeda opuntia)
The branches are numerous and are in different planes, rather than nearly in a single plane as other species tend to be – thousands of tiny green leaves
They grow in shallow depressions, cracks and crevices

The branches are numerous and are in different planes, rather than nearly in a single
plane as other species tend to be – (made up of) thousands of tiny green leaves
They grow in shallow depressions, cracks and crevices

Burgundy crust alga
(Peyssonellia rubra)

Form thin, hard, highly calcified encrustations
– outer margins may not be fully attached
Prefer shaded areas, attached to hard substrates – burgundy in color

Turtle grass
(Thalassia testudinum)

Turtle grass is characterized by its flat, strap-like blades; 4-30 inches tall, thick and tough with roots anchored deep in the sand
Scaly flowers, generally whitish-green to pink in color, are produced. Fruits are rounded and pod-like; turtle grass grows in the subtidal zone from approximately the low tide line to depths of 30 feet or more

Shoal grass
(Halodule wrightii)
Shoal grass grows in sheltered or exposed
areas of the low intertidal and subtidal zones in sand and mud substrates to depths of approximately 40 feet; in shallow water, generally less than 2 feet deep, it often forms extensive meadows
The most grass-like of the sea grasses. Blades are somewhat stiff and flattened – notched at the tip

Manatee grass
(Syringoduim filiforme)

Grass has thin blades that are cylindrical in
cross section rather than flat, as occurs in most
other seagrass types
Manatee grass is a shallow subtidal species
that thrives at a depth of approximately 2 -3
feet, but also occurs to depth of 60 feet.

Nodose Box Crab
(Calappa angusta)

Prefer warm waters; has a small abdomen tucked underneath its body and four pairs of legs
Recognized by rows of nodules that radiate from behind its eyes across the upper surface of its yellowish shell

American Horseshoe Crab
(Limulus polyphemus)

Has five plate like “book” gills that contain many membranes,
like the pages of the book, and are situated toward the tail
They can absorb water, which helps the crab to fill its new shell after it has shed the old one

(Megalops atlanticus)

The female can produce 12 million eggs
- scales are very pretty and are sometimes used in ornamental work
Tarpon can live to be 55 years old - if it enters stagnant water,
it surfaces and gulps air, which is stored in the swim bladder and acts like a lung

(Albula vulpes)
This fish is extremely bony - although they do not make good eating, they are one of the most important game fish in the world
It is streamlined and silvery, with dark markings on its back, a single dorsal fin, and a blunt snout extending over the mouth

West Indian Manatee
(Trichechus manatus)
Largest species of manatee - usually live
in groups of up to 20
They owe their blimplike shapes partly
to the large amounts of gas generated
as they digest their food

Loggerhead sea turtle
(Caretta caretta)
They are the most abundant sea turtle yet still endangered
They eat jellyfish and crabs
Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops)

can swim 18 miles per hour
They (travelling in pods) will help a injured dolphin to the surface when needed
( Pomacanthidae)
has a flat lateral disc to slip in between rocks
the bright colors help it blend into the reef
Sheeps head
(Archosargus probatocephalus)
can not handle drops in oxygen levels
eats blue crabs and other invertebrates
Caribbean Reef Sharks
(Carcharhinus perezi)
Nicknamed "Silent sea predator"
the target of tourist fish feeding programs which can train them to attack
1. coral bleaching- the warming of temperatures due to pollution that results in the loss of coloring in coral
2. picking it to sell- sea life are popular marine gifts
3. uneducated snorkelers - touch and break the corals and sponges
4. acidification- carbon dioxide levels increase the acid levels in the ocean, which causes animals to not be able to create their shells
5. pollution- runoff and co2 build up
6. fishing- They have used it as a tourist location and fished on the reefs but have been destroying them because of uneducation. They did not use it successfully because the coral is dying from reasons 1-6.

Seagrasses. (n.d.). Seagrasses. Retrieved October 4, 2014, from http://www.dep.state.fl.us/coastal/habitats

New Page 1. (n.d.). New Page 1. Retrieved October 6, 2014, from http://www.sms.si.edu/IRLFieldGuide/Thala

New Page 1. (n.d.). New Page 1. Retrieved October 6, 2014, from http://www.sms.si.edu/IRLFieldGuide/Halodu

New Page 1. (n.d.). New Page 1. Retrieved October 6, 2014, from http://www.sms.si.edu/IRLFieldGuide/Syring

Pufferfish, Pufferfish Pictures, Pufferfish Facts - National Geographic. (n.d.). National Geographic. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animal

Parrot Fish, Parrot Fish Pictures, Parrot Fish Facts - National Geographic. (n.d.). National Geographic. Retrieved October 6, 2014, from http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/parrot-fish/

Lionfish, Lionfish Pictures, Lionfish Facts - National Geographic. (n.d.). National Geographic. Retrieved October 3, 2014, from http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals

Information About Blue Tang | The Nature Conservancy. (n.d.). Information About Blue Tang | The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved October 6, 2014, from http://www.nature.org/newsfeatures/specialfeatures/animals/fish/blue-tang.xml

Butterflyfish, Butterflyfish Pictures, Butterfly Fish Facts - National Geographic. (n.d.). National Geographic. Retrieved October 6, 2014, from http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/anim

Fish. (n.d.). Great Barrier Reef Australia. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from http://www.greatbarrierreef.com.au/animals/

Cousteau, F. (20082006). Ocean. New York: DK Pub..


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