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THE USES OF PETROLEUM FRACTIONS
Transcript of THE USES OF PETROLEUM FRACTIONS
THE PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS CONTRIBUTION TO THE COUNTRY’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
PROPERTIES AND USES OF VARIOUS PETROLEUM FRACTIONS
All of the petroleum fractions are insoluble in water and burn in air.
Every fraction has it own unique usage to humans depending on their needs.
For example, the petroleum gas and petrol are the fractions that have more demand than the other fractions.
Firewood and charcoal are examples of wood.
Firewood is obtained from trunks, branches and twigs of trees.
It can be used for cooking and heating purposes.
It produces a lot of soot that pollutes environment.
Charcoal is produced by burning wood slowly in little air.
It produces less pollutants compared to firewood
Natural gas is very important to the petrochemical industry.
Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and it has a low boiling point.
90% of natural gas is made up of methane, while the remaining gas is made up of hydrocarbons like ethane, butane, and propane.
Natural gas is a relatively clean burning fossil fuel mostly to:
heat houses and building
run industrial processes
Petroleum and natural gas have contributed to the development of the country.
One of Malaysia’s main export is petroleum. Therefore, it is an important source of income and foreign exchange for our country since 1979.
Petroleum industry has created many job opportunities for Malaysians.
It also helped in building the country’s socio-economic infrastructure with the development of steel complexes, petrochemical industries as well as in the improving of the housing and port sectors.
The uses of coal include:
-replacing petroleum and natural gas at power station using thermal generators.
-coal in form of gas or coke is used in the metal extraction industry
-as tars to make roads and roofs.
NUR ADIBA BINTI MOHAMMAD DAUD
Coal is a hard, black, rock-like substances and is the most abundant fossil fuel resource on earth.
Coal is a mixture of carbon, hydrocarbon and other compounds.
Coal is formed from the remains of trees and giant ferns that once grew in tropical swamps.
Coal is mainly burn in power station to generate electricity and as source of heat for industry.
EFFICIENT USES OF PETROLEUM AND OTHER NATURAL FUEL RESOURCES
Allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature.
Installing fluorescent lights or natural skylights reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared with using traditional incandescent light bulbs.
Compact fluorescent lights use one-third the energy of incandescent lights and may last from 6 to 10 times longer.
Reducing energy use
iron as many clothes as possible at one time to save energy
use smaller cars with engines that burn petrol efficiently
Avoid unnecessary idling.
Turn off your engine when you are stopped for more than 60 seconds, except when in traffic. The average vehicle with a three-litre engine wastes 300 millilitres—more than one cup—of fuel for every 10 minutes it idles.
Measure tire pressure monthly.
Operating a vehicle with its tires underinflated by 8 psi (56 kPa) can reduce the life of the tires by 10,000 kilometres and increase the vehicle’s fuel consumption by four percent.
Avoid carrying unnecessary weight.
Remove items such as salt, sand and sports equipment from your vehicle before setting out. The less weight in your vehicle, the less fuel your engine will need
and the fewer carbon dioxide emissions your vehicle will produce. Consider that the fuel consumption of a mid-size car increases by about one percent for every 25 kilograms of weight in the vehicle.
Use air conditioning sparingly.
-Air conditioning can increase a vehicle’s fuel consumption by as much as 20 percent. Open a window while driving in the city and use the vehicle’s flow-through ventilation system with the windows up while on the highway. If air conditioning is a luxury you simply don’t want to give up, select the re-circulate option as opposed to the fresh-air alternative to help minimize the impact of air conditioning on fuel consumption.
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plan where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as :
-petroleum naphtha -gasoline - diesel fuel -asphalt base
-heating oil - kerosene -liquefied petroleum gas
Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units.
Oil refineries use much of the technology of, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant. There is usually an oil depot (tank farm) at or near an oil refinery for the storage of incoming crude oil feedstock as well as bulk liquid products.
An oil refinery is considered an essential part of the downstream side of the petroleum industry.
FLOW DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL OIL REFINERY
CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION UNIT
DISADVANTAGES OF OIL REFINERY
-due to effluent, wash water and cooling water discharges and seepage from storage and waste tanks also due to oil spills
-due to discharges of water effluents rich inorganic salts without appropriate treatment
-due to discharges of effluents with temperature higher than recipient water bodies
Particulate emissions into the atmosphere generated during the operations at production and refining plants.
Sulphur and nitrogen oxides, ammonia, acid mist and fluorine compound gas emissions from production and refining plants operation.
Occasional release of potentially hazardous material, such as solvents and acid or alkaline materials
Soil, surface water and groundwater contamination by inappropriate disposal of solid waste resulting from chemical industries processes including effluent treatment sludge and particulate matter from dust collectors
Change in local traffic due to truck circulation (including dangerous cargo)
Noise pollution cause by equipment and operation that generates loud noise.
Accidents that impacts the environment such as large oil spills, leaks, fires and explosions on plants. Eventual deaths.