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The Enlightenment

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Katherine Tuchez

on 1 October 2012

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Transcript of The Enlightenment

Katherine Tuchez The
Enlightenment Enlightenment-
an intellectual movement;
enlightenment thinkers that apply reason and
scientific method to laws that shaped human actions; Age of Reason Social Contract-
according to Thomas Hobbes, an agreement people make with government Thomas Hobbes-
believed that a strong king who can force all people to obey is the best government John Locke-
believed that people have three natural rights: life, liberty ,and property Philosophes:
Social critics in France Voltaire-
Writer who fought for tolerance, reason, freedom, of religious belief, and freedom of speech Major Ideas of the Enlightenment Idea:
Separation of powers Idea:
Freedom of thought and expression Idea:
Natural rights-life, liberty, property Thinker:
Locke Impact:
Fundamental to U.S. Declaration of Independence Thinker:
Montesquieu Impact:
France, United States, Latin American nations use separation of powers in new constitutions. Thinker:
Voltaire Impact:
Guaranteed in U.S. Bill of Rights and French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen: European monarchs reduce or eliminate censorship Idea:
Abolishment of torture Thinker:
Beccaria Impact:
Guaranteed in U.S. Bill of Rights; torture outlawed or reduced in nations of Europe and the Americas Idea:
Religious Freedom Thinker:
Voltaire Impact: Guaranteed in U.S. Bill of Rights and French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen; European monarchs reduce persecution Idea:
Women's equality Thinker:
Wollstonecraft Impact:
Women's rights groups form in Europe and North America Scientific Revolution-
refers to the rapid advances in European scientific, mathematical, and political thought, based on a new philosophy of empiricism and a faith in progress that defined Europe in the 16th and 17th Baron de Montesquieu-
French writer concerned with government and political liberty; wrote about separation of powers- dividing power among the separate branches of government Jean Jacques Rousseau-
wrote in favor of human freedom; wanted a society in which all people were equal Cesare Beccaria-
an Italian philosphe; spoke out against abuses of justice Women's place in society-
wanted equal rights for all men but paid not attention to the fact that women did not have such rights Mary Wollstonecraft-
author who wrote about women's rights Enlightenment thinkers-
helped spread the idea of progress by using reason; helped make the world less religious and more wordly and stressed the importance of the individual Philosophes beliefs-
reason: through reason truth can be found
nature: natural is good & reasonable
happiness: acting according to nature can bring happiness
progress: stressed that society & human kind could improve
liberty: by using reason people can gain freedom Importance of the individual-
Faith in science and in progress produced a third
outcome, the rise of individualism; philosophes encouraged people to use their own ability to reason in order to
judge what was right or wrong separation of power-
is a political doctrine originating in the writings of Montesquieu; he urged for a constitutional government with three separate branches of government: the legislative, executive, and judicial branches Denis Diderot-
he was interested merely in collecting as much knowledge as possible for his mammoth Encyclopédie; would go on to spread Enlightenment knowledge to other countries around the world skepticism-
questioned whether human society could really be perfected through the use of reason and denied the ability of rational thought to reveal universal truths. Immanuel Kant-
took skepticism to its greatest lengths;argued that man could truly know neither observed objects nor metaphysical concepts; Absolute Monarchy-
The European political scene during the Enlightenment era was largely an absolute monarchy Nicolaus Copernicus-
first major contributer to the Enlightenment; polish astronomer
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