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Computer Systems Technology / Information & Communication Te

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Amoz Ang

on 28 November 2014

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Transcript of Computer Systems Technology / Information & Communication Te

It's no secret that more and more the Internet is becoming an integral part of our everyday lives. But if you are new to the online experience, it may be a bit overwhelming. You may be wondering,

"What exactly is the internet, and how does it work?"

In this lesson, we will give a brief overview of the Internet, and we will talk about some fundamental concepts such as networks, servers, and clients.
The Internet
Computer Systems Technology / Information & Communication Technology
There are two main types of computer networks:
In the early days, most people just used the internet to search for information.

Today's internet is a constantly evolving tool, that not only contains an amazing variety of information, but also provides new ways of accessing, interacting and connecting with people and content.

As a result, new terms are constantly appearing as new technologies are introduced.
The Internet Today
When you access a web page, your computer is acting as a client. A client runs familiar software such as
web browsers
email software
, and it communicates with the server to get the information it requires.

In order for your browser to display a web page, it
the data from the server where the page is stored. The server processes the request, then sends the data to your browser, where it is displayed.
Servers and Clients

When most people think of the Internet, the first thing they think about is the
World Wide Web
. Nowadays, the terms "Internet" and "World Wide Web" are often used interchangeably—but they're actually not the same thing.

What is the Internet?
The internet is the largest computer network in the world, connecting millions of computers. A network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A LAN is two or more connected computers sharing certain resources in a relatively small geographic location, often in the same building. Examples include home networks and office networks.
A WAN typically consists of two or more LANs. The computers are farther apart and are linked by telephone lines, dedicated telephone lines, or radio waves. The internet is the largest Wide Area Network (WAN) in existence.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
You may have heard someone say something like "The server is down" or "We're having problems with the e-mail server."

is a computer that "serves" many different computers in a network by
running specialized software
storing information
. For example, web pages are stored on servers.
*In peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, each computer acts as both a server and a client. Examples of P2P software include Skype and BitTorrent.
The World Wide Web (WWW)
The backbone of the World Wide Web is made of
HTML files
, which are specially-formatted documents that can contain links, as well as images and other media. All
web browsers
can read HTML files. In addition to HTML, it's also very common for websites to use technologies like
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
to do more advanced things.
To get to a web page, you can type the
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
in a browser. The URL, also known as the
web address
, tells the browser exactly where to find the page. However, most of the time, people get to a web page by following a
from a different page or by searching for the page with a
search engine
is the
physical network
of computers all over the world.
World Wide Web
is a
virtual network
web sites
connected by
(or "
"). Web sites are stored on
on the internet, so the World Wide Web is a part of the Internet.
*The World Wide Web was created in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee, a software engineer. Before then, computers could communicate over the internet, but there were no web pages.
The foundation of the internet began in 1969, when the US Department of Defense created ARPAnet, a project to allow military personnel to communicate with each other in an emergency.
By 2012, the number of internet users worldwide reached 2.4 billion—about one third of the world's population.
To store all of the information on the internet, you would need over 1 billion DVDs or 200 million Blu-ray discs.
Term 1:
Term 2:
Term 3:
Term 4:

Internet awareness and Cyber Safety
Client-based IT problem

All CST/ICT students must backup their work on a flash drive!!!
Storage and Memory
Cloud Computing
"Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction."
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) - Agency of US Government
But what does it mean to us?
Imagine the possibility of endless
computing power all the time
Cloud Computing
Resources On-Demand
Rapid Elasticity
Highly Automated
Increased Mobility
Cloud Computing
Service Models
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
Public Cloud
Private Cloud
Hybrid Cloud
Huge computing capacity
Pay as you use - cheap pricing
Quickly scale capacity, both up and down
Big cloud providers - Google/Amazon
You have used cloud computing before!
Any questions?
Computer Crime/Viruses
Malicious threats and deliberate actions
- Software-based
- Human

Unintentional actions and technical failures

Physical and accidental Threats
Types of Dangers to Network Security
Malware - short for MALicious softWARE.
- specifically designed to damage or disrupt an information system. (ie. virus or Trojan)
Malicious Threats and Deliberate Actions
- Software
Trojan - A program/software that masquerades as another application
- Usually sends information back to the maker without the user knowing.
- A program that is loaded onto your computer without you knowing
- Runs against your wishes
- Can make a copy of itself over and over again
-> Worms: A dangerous type of virus that is capable of transmitting itself across networks.
Virus, Worm, Trojan

- Limit downloads and unauthorised software.
- All data and software sources must be determined to be safe before use by scanning with a virus checker.
- Use a firewall to check for suspicious activity by a program
- User training to detect unusual activity, especially unusual requests
- Alert users to the concerns with downloading some types of applications
- Check the fine print carefully when downloading free software.
- Check special sites that have information about spyware products
Virus, Worm, Trojan

- Installation of an up-to-date anti-virus program that will remove the virus
- Isolate infected computers from the network and then proceed to clean
- Periodically scan computer with software that detects known spyware

Malicious Threats and Deliberate Actions
- Human
- Attempting to break into a system by trying different passwords
- Using software to "guess" a person's password

Physical Spying
- Finding passwords and system information through spying
- Spies watch the entry of passwords (often pretends to be a technician or part of the organisation)

- Set a time limit and/or limit number of attempts to logon
- Change passwords regularly
Spyware (also called Adware)
- Monitors the actions of a user and sends this information back to the sender
- Can cause advertisements to pop up
- Slows down computer performance
Social Engineering
- Victims are tricked into releasing information that they do not realise will be used to attack a network
- Obtaining secure data by conning/blackmailing an individual into revealing secure information such as passwords and login names

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)
- System crashes often and network runs slow as another computers, often taken over by Trojans, are activated to send multiple requests to a site or network

Physical Spying:

- Limit access to offices and staff
- Use biometrics with passwords
- Encrypt information
Social Engineering:

- Limit access to vital information and use more than one form of identification to login
- Warn people not to give out vital information
- Warn people about this type of attack and how it works

- Little prevention until attack occurs

- Change all passwords and trace hacker with the use of login and activity records
Physical Spying:

- Change all passwords
- Review physical security
- Review personal reliability
- Trace spy with the use of login and activity records
Social Engineering:

- Successful because its victims want to trust other people and are naturally helpful when a seemingly genuine request is made for information.
- Do not give out vital information without double-checking the reason.

- Trace source of extra traffic and reject requests
- Disconnect computer from network
Unintentional Actions & Technical Issues
Hardware/Software Malfunction
- Loss of data and equipment
- Equipment breaks down

Human Error
- Data loss or corruption due to user error
- System misbehaves
- Incorrect data entered
- Incorrect user behaviour
Hardware/Software Malfunction
- Backup equipment, software and date for immediate use
- Test software and hardware thoroughly

Human Error
- Train users in correct operational procedures and limit access
Hardware/Software Malfunction
- Have a recovery plan to replace equipment and reinstall software.
- Data recovery is essential

Human Error
- Track person responsible
- Modify access, passwords and procedures
- Use recovery plan
Physical and Accidental Threats
Fire, water
- Loss of hardware, software and data due to smoke, fire and water damage

Power loss and power surges
- Equipment fails and may not restart
- Loss of data and the inability to use equipment
War and terrorist attack
- Physical damage
- Loss of hardware, software and data
Fire, water
- Keep water supply and drainage systems away from equipment
- Have a CO2 fire extinguisher nearby

Power loss and power surges
- Extra power lines from different sources
- Power surge protection
War and terrorist attack
- Secure facilities and keep main system off-site
Fire, water
- Execute the disaster plan
- Extinguish the fire
Keep backups of data off-site

Power loss and power surges
- Standby power supplies,
- UPS system (Uninterruptable power supply)
War and terrorist attack
- Have a recovery plan to replace equipment
- Reinstall software and recover data
- commonly referred to as unauthorised use or attempts to bypass the security of an information system or network.

- means illegally accessing other people's computer systems for destroying, disrupting or carrying out illegal activities on the network or computer systems.

- the illegal activities may not be destructive, but be based on curiosity and the challenge to defeat a security system
Popular Hacking Tools:
Port Scanning
- Finding the weaknesses of a computer or network by scanning or probing system ports (network access points) through requests for information
- Often used by professionals as a tool to discover and correct security holes
- Can also be used maliciously to detect and exploit weaknesses.

Packet Sniffing
- Intercepting packets of information (looking for things like credit card numbers) that travel through networks, especially the Internet.
- Packets can be intercepted at any computer they travel through
- Most packets travel through many computers before reaching their destination on the Internet

For more info, Google: Tools and Utilities Commonly Used to Hack Computer Systems
What is social media?
A Web-based mode of dialogue that uses a wide array of tools, websites, and other applications to encourage communication between individuals, corporations, non-profits, and other organizations.
Types of Social Media
Image sharing sites
Video sharing sites
Social bookmarking
Social networking sites
Community-moderated content, such as a wiki
Virtual communities, i.e., online gaming
Most social media sites focus on a specific type of social engagement.
Users at LinkedIn are more professionally oriented, focusing on business relationships, branding, and job-related information, so that structure makes relationships less casual and more businesslike.
Old Media vs New Media
One of the most revolutionary aspects of social media is that it delivers information for free to a wide group of people with little to no lag time behind the actual event. In addition, anyone can publish news, information, or other resources, which makes anyone with access to the Internet a content creator.
How Social Media has changed Businesses
Savvy organizations recognize that social media gives them a uniquely personal way to connect to their consumers. A one-way, professionally managed public relations monologue is no longer the only choice that businesses, organizations, and non-profits have. Nowadays, smart businesses create online communities (via the social media sites already detailed above) where customers and clients can exchange ideas, share experiences, and encourage innovation.
Cyberbullying is using technology to deliberately and repeatedly bully someone.

What does Cyberbullying look like?
It can include:
- abusive texts and emails
- hurtful messages, images or videos
- imitating others online to set them up
- excluding others online
- nasty online gossip and chat
How do you deal with it?
- talk to someone you trust straight away—like a parent, sibling, uncle/aunt, teacher or friend
- don’t retaliate or respond—they might use it against you
- block the bully and change your privacy settings
- report the abuse to the service and get others to as well
- collect the evidence—keep mobile phone messages and print emails or social networking conversations
- remember you didn’t ask for this—nobody deserves to be bullied
What if a friend is being bullied online?
- don’t join in—don’t comment on posts, images or videos that will hurt others
- don’t forward or share posts, images or videos that will hurt others
- leave negative groups and conversations
- report bullying to someone that can help—this can be an anonymous report to a parent or teacher
- if you are confident, call others on their bullying and ask them to stop—“Enough. This isn’t funny”
- support your friend—let them know you are there for them—”I heard about those dumb posts. I’m here for you”
Am I a cyberbully?
Advances in technology have now extended harassment to cell phones, social media websites and other online avenues that are contributing to an alarming number of suicides.
Menacing, harassing or offensive use of the internet or a mobile
It is a crime to use a phone or the internet in threaten, harass or seriously offend somebody. A message or post could be considered offensive if it is likely to cause serious anger, outrage, humiliation or disgust. The maximum penalty is 3 years in jail.

In 2010, a 20 year old guy in QLD sent threats and hate-filled texts and Facebook messages to his ex-girlfriend and her new boyfriend. He was found guilty of using phone and internet services in a menacing, harassing or offensive way and placed on probation with an order to attend counseling.

In 2011, a teenager in NSW made a Facebook page called “All ___ Police Are Corrupt”, which included the names of several local police officers. He was charged with harassing and offensive use of the internet.
It is a crime to intentionally frighten someone by threatening to hurt them. This can be through your phone, text message, emails or online posts. Threatening to kill someone carries a maximum penalty of 10 years in jail.

In 2006, a teenager in NSW threatened to kill two of his teachers and a girl at his school on his MySpace page. He was charged with making threats.

In 2009, a guy in WA posted a video on YouTube that showed him making threatening comments towards people of a particular ethnic and religious background. He was charged under racial hate laws.
Stalking is when someone gets repeated attention that intimidates or frightens them. Stalking can include making unwanted phone calls, emails, text messages and messages on Facebook/Twitter etc. Stalking is a crime in VIC if you call, message or otherwise bother somebody during a course of conduct with the intent to harm, harass or scare them. The maximum penalty is 10 years in jail.

In 2009, a guy in VIC copied pictures from a girl’s profile and posted them on adult websites, along with her name and contact details. He was found guilty of stalking and sentenced to jail.

In 2011, a teenager in WA who had befriended an American girl on Facebook began sending her threatening messages and unwanted gifts. He was arrested for stalking.
It is a crime under state and national law to log into a person’s online accounts without permission. The maximum penalty is 2 years in jail.

Unauthorised Access
It is a crime in VIC to publish untrue information about someone in order to cause them serious harm. The maximum penalty is 10 years in jail.

In 2009, a teenager in SA made a harassing Facebook page about a local police officer. He was found guilty of defamation and placed on a two year good behaviour bond.


It is a crime under both VIC and national law to cyberbully someone in a way that intentionally encourages or causes them to kill themselves. The maximum penalty is 5 years in jail.
Encouraging Suicide
All schools in VIC should have anti-bullying plans in place to deal with bullying and cyberbullying. Schools are responsible for making sure students know what their anti-bullying plan is and teachers are responsible for making sure the plan is followed. Different schools may have different ways of dealing with cyberbullying, but it should always be taken seriously.

The school may also call the police if they think a crime has been committed.
Discipline in Schools
When cyberbullying involves unwelcome sexual advances, sexual threats or discriminatory comments from a person at work or school, complaints can be made to the Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission or the Australian Human Rights Commission. A comment may be discriminatory if it makes fun of someone because of their race, sexuality, gender identity, religion, disability, etc.
Discrimination Complaints
When cyberbullying involves making comments or posting pictures which damage someone’s reputation, cyberbullies can be sued by the victim for defamation or other claims.

In 2008, a court in Victoria ordered a guy to pay his ex-girlfriend $40,000 to compensate for the suffering he caused when he threatened to release sex tapes of her. She had sued him for invading her privacy, breaching her trust and intentionally causing her emotional distress.
Other Legal Action
If you ever want to talk to anyone about anything that’s bothering you, you can contact Kids Helpline on
1800 55 1800
What can you do if it’s happening to you?

Keep calm
If you are having issues with your friends or someone else, whether it be at school or in other places, try not to react to them via email, text or social networking sites. It’s easy to say something hurtful when you’re feeling angry or upset, but if it’s written down or posted online, it’s permanent. Nothing online is ever private, even after you delete it!

Talk to someone
If someone writes something or posts a photo that upsets you, scares you or makes you feel uncomfortable, talk to a friend, your parents or another trusted adult. You don’t have to deal with hurt feelings or embarrassment on your own. The sooner you tell someone, the sooner something can be done about it and you can feel safe.

Record evidence
Take screenshots or print off any bullying messages or posts. Record the times and dates of any harassing phone calls.

Ask the person to delete it
If someone has posted something offensive about you, often the easiest thing to do is to ask them to delete it. You can tell them that their actions could be a crime. If they refuse to delete it, you can send a Lawmail. The Lawmail team can write a notice explaining the laws and letting them know that you will consider going to the police if they don’t take it down.

Report it to the website
You can report cyber bullying and have content removed if it violates the website’s terms of use (the agreement between a user and the owner of the website). If you need help, send a Lawmail or check out the ACMA’s guide to social media.

Report it to your phone company
If you’re getting upsetting calls or texts, you can make a complaint to the phone company. The phone company may be able to trace the caller/sender and send them a warning letter. If the bad behaviour doesn’t stop after repeated warning letters, the offender’s phone number could be suspended or cancelled. For more info, contact your phone company (for example, Telstra, Optus or Vodafone).

Block the bully
Most websites let you block problem users from contacting you—see the ACMA’s guide to social media.
There are also apps available for some phones that let you block calls and texts from certain people. Contact your phone company for more info.

Talk to your teacher, school counselor or principal
Most schools have anti-bullying guidelines that cover cyber bullying. If the person who is bullying you is a student at your school, then your school may be able to help you work things out.

Apply for a protection order
If someone is using your personal information to stalk, intimidate, harass or threaten you, you may be able to apply to the court for a protection order to keep them from contacting you again.

For more information, send a Lawmail, contact Youthlaw, or visit your local Community Legal Centre.

Contact a free legal service in your area about legal action
You may also have a claim to sue someone who harms you or your reputation by posting or sharing offensive material about you. For more information, send a Lawmail or contact your local Community Legal Centre.

Report it to the police
If you believe you are the victim of one of the crimes explained above, you can report it to the police. If your situation involves a nude or sexual image of a young person, it’s a good idea to get some free legal advice before going to the police. You can send us a Lawmail, contact Youthlaw or visit your local Community Legal Centre. If someone is threatening or scaring you, please contact the police immediately.
Think carefully before posting or sending.

Remember that online actions have real-life consequences, and that anything you say can be saved and shared with others.
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