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The Solar System

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Amber Sylvester

on 12 March 2013

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Transcript of The Solar System

*Note: the
are = 1 A.U. Mercury is the closest to the sun. Its orbital distance is 0.3871 A.U. away from the sun
(57 million kilometers). Its orbit period (year) is 87.97 Earth days.

Its rotation period (day) is 58.6 Earth days. Mercury has no true atmosphere, but there are traces of hydrogen (H2) and helium (He2) present. Mercury also does not have any moons. Its high temperature is
700K (427C) Its low temperature is
100K (-173C) Its gravity is 0.38 of Earth's. Facts It is the smallest planet. It is named after the Roman Messenger, Hermes. It is least explored out of all the inner planets, because it is so close to the sun. After Earth, Mercury is the densest body in the Solar
System. Two probes have passed Mercury (Mariner 10 and Messenger). See? Venus' orbital distance is 0.7233 A.U. away from the sun (108.2 million kilometers). Its orbit period (year) is 224.7 Earth days. Its rotation period (day) is 243 Earth days. This makes Venus' day longer than its year by 18.3 days! Venus' atmosphere consists of Carbon Dioxide, Sulfuric Acid, and Nitrogen. It is known to have a thick atmosphere. Venus' average temperature is
740K (467C) Venus has no moons at all. Venus has a gravity of 0.91 of Earth's. Did you know. . . Venus is called Earth's twin because they are very similar in size. Venus is the hottest planet, even though it is second from the sun. Venus rotates clockwise or in a retrograde rotation. It is named after the Roman Goddess of Beauty. Many probes have visited Venus, including Magellan and the entire Venera Series! Earth's orbital distance is 1 A.U. away from the sun (149.6 million kilometers) Earth's orbit period (year) is 365.25 days. Earth's rotation period (day) is 24 hours. Its atmosphere consists of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, and of course water. Its gravity is exactly 1.0 Its high temperature is
317K (44C) Its low temperature is
221K (-51C) Earth has 1 moon. Earth's moon is also called Luna.
Rocks of this moon have been brought back to Earth and studied.
The moon's surface consists of highlands (tarrae) and plains (maria). Facts Every 4 years, a day is added to the year (a leap year).
Earth is the only planet that its name didnt come from mythology, although there is Mother Earth (Goddess Gaea) from Greek Mythology.
Many Probes explore Earth, including the International Space Station (ISS)
We are still learning and exploring new things about this planet that we live on. Mars' orbital distance is 1.5237 A.U. away from the sun (227.9 million kilometers). Its gravity is 0.38 of Earth's. Mars' orbit period (year) is 686.98 Earth days (1.88 Earth years). Mars' rotation period (day) is 24 hours 37.5 minutes. Its high temperature is
308K (35C) Its low temperature is
130K (-143C) Mars' atmosphere contains nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and even traces of some oxygen. Mars has two moons: Phobos and Deimos. They are both small and have an odd shape. It is possible that the moons were asteroids that Mars' gravity caught. Phobos Deimos Facts In Roman Mythology Mars is the God of War.
There is much evidence that liquid water was once on Mars.
Its atmosphere is extremely thin.
Mars in known to have a pink sky.
It is geologically active, with many volcanoes.
March is named after Mars. Ceres' orbital distance is 2.76 A.U. from the sun. Ceres is the innermost dwarf planet. Its orbit period (year) is 4.6 Earth years. Its rotation period (day) is 9.07 hours. Ceres atmosphere is unknown, but it is thought to have a very weak atmosphere, made of water frost. Ceres has no moons. Its high temperature is
239K (-31C) Its low temperature is
167K (-106C) Its gravity is 0.028 of Earth's. Interesting. . . Ceres is the smallest of the 3 dwarf planets. In Roman mythology, Ceres was the Goddess of Harvest. When Ceres was first discovered, astronomers named it the fifth planet, but then later on named it a dwarf planet. Ceres is the largest body in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. The probe DAWN is scheduled to visit Ceres by 2015. Ceres was discovered in Italy by Giuseppe Piazzi. Jupiter's orbital distance is 5.2 A.U. from the sun (778 million kilometers). Jupiter's gravity is 2.53 of Earth's. Jupiter's average temperature is
120K (-153C). Its atmosphere consists of
90% hydrogen
10% helium Jupiter's orbit period (year) is 11.86 Earth years. Jupiter's rotation period (day) is 9.8 hours. Jupiter has the most moons out of all the planets, 67 total moons! There are 4 moons more commonly talked about called the Galilean moons. The Galilean moons are: Ganymede Io Callisto Europa *Note: not actual sizes Second largest moon of Jupiter with a very cratered surface. The most volcanically active in the solar system, and innermost of the Galilean moons. The largest moon in the Solar System, it is even larger than Mercury! Only a little smaller than Earth's moon, seems to have a liquid ocean under its ice crust. Facts Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System.
Its named after he king of the Roman gods.
Since Jupiter is so bright, people were able to notice it from the sky way back in ancient times.
Jupiter's atmosphere has a storm called the "Great Red Spot", it has been going on for many years.
Jupiter has a small ring system, it can be seen in sunlight. Saturn's orbital distance is 9.588 A.U. from the sun (1.427 billion kilometers). It is the most distant planet that is visible with a naked eye. Saturn's orbit period (year) is 29.46 Earth years. Saturn's rotation period (day) is 10.32 hours. Saturn's atmosphere consists of
75% hydrogen
25% helium
There are also traces of a little
methane and ammonia. Saturn's average temperature is
88K (-185C) Its gravity is 1.07of Earth's Saturn has a total of 63 moons! They include Enceladus, Lapetus, Mimas, and the largest moon Titan. Lapetus Enceladus Mimas Titan Titan is Saturn's largest moon and the second largest moon in the Solar System (after Ganymede). It has a thick, very hazy atmosphere. It is a very unique trait for a moon. Its surface is spotted with lakes of liquid methane. Wow. . . Saturn is know for having the most developed rings in the Solar System. There is no surface to stand on Saturn. It is just a big gas ball! It is hard to send probes to explore because they can't land on it. Saturn is the second largest
planet. It is an outer planet/ gas giant. Although they can't land, Saturn has had quite a few probes pass by it, including Cassini-Huygens and Pioneer 11. The day Saturday is named after Saturn. Saturn's density is so low, it could float on water. Saturn's rings could possibly disappear in the next 50 million years! Uranus' orbital distance is 19.19 A.U. from the sun (2.871 billion kilometers). Its gravity is 0.92 of Earth's. Its average temperature is 59K (214C) Uranus' orbit period (year) is 84.07 Earth Years. Uranus' rotation period (day) is 17.9 hours. Uranus' atmosphere consists of
83% hydrogen
15% helium
2% methane Uranus has a total of 27
moons! Its largest moons are made of ice and rock, they are very heavily cratered. They include: Miranda Umbriel Oberon Facts Uranus has a retrograde rotation (clockwise).
Uranus is tilted on its side, so its axis of rotation is tilted almost 98 degrees
It is named after the Greek God of the Heavens.
It has only been visited by Voyager 2.
It has the second most developed ring system. Neptune's orbital distance is 30.06 A.U. from the sun (4.497 billion kilometers). Neptune's gravity is 1.18 of Earth's. Its average temperature is
48K (-225C) Its orbit period (year) is 164.82 Earth years. Its rotation period (day) is 18.48 hours. Neptune's atmosphere consists of
74% hydrogen
25% helium
1% methane The methane gives Neptune its blue color Neptune has a total of 13 moons! Except for Triton (Neptune's largest moon), its other moons are small, and made of ice and rock. They include: Proteus Thalassa Triton Triton is Neptune's largest moon. It is very dense and revolves around Neptune in a retrograde orbit. Its atmosphere is very thin and mostly nitrogen gas. Facts Neptune is the farthest planet from the sun.
In Roman mythology, it is the God of Sea.
It has the fastest winds in the Solar System.
It is the smallest gas giant.
It has a small ring system, they are called ring arcs.
It has only been visited once by Voyager 2. Pluto's orbital distance is 39.53 A.U. from the sun (5.913 billion kilometers). Pluto's gravity is 0.03 of Earth's. Its average temperature is
38K (-235C). Its orbit period (year) is 248.6 Earth years. Its rotation period (day) is 6.387 Earth days. Pluto has a seasonal atmosphere. It appears to consist of
carbon monoxide,
nitrogen Pluto has a total of 5 moons. They Include: Charon, Nix, and Hydra Charon is most commonly known and Pluto's biggest moon. It is almost the size of Pluto itself. Facts Pluto used tobe known as the ninth planet but then was demoted down to a dwarf planet in 2006.
No probes have reached Pluto yet, but New Horizons is on its way.
It is named after the Roman God of the Underworld.
Plutonium is named after Pluto.
It travels in a egg shaped orbit around the sun. Eris' orbital distance is 67.67 A.U. from the sun. Its gravity is 0.09 of Earth's. Its high temperature is 55K (-218C). Its low temperature is 30K (-243C). Its orbit period (year) is 557 Earth years. Its rotation period (day) is 8 hours. Eris is known to have a seasonal atmosphere. Eris has one moon, it is named Dysnomia. Together, they travel through Kuiper Belt. Dysnomia is about 22 times smaller than Eris. Facts Eris is the outermost dwarf planet, and the largest.
It was discovered in Hawaii in 2005.
It was named after the Greek Goddess of strife and discord.
It is known to be the biggest object in the kuiper belt.
It is thought to be made of rock and ice. *Note: Pluto and Eris are too small to see
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