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History of Art

By: Brooke Harvey
by

Brooke Harvey

on 19 December 2012

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Transcript of History of Art

By: Brooke Harvey The History of Art The oldest known representational imagery comes from the Aurignacion culture of the upper Paleolithic Era. Many discoveries of such ancient art have been found in abundance across Europe. Paleolithic/Neolithic Art caves at Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc The Neolithic Era, often referred to as the Stonehenge, is considered by many to be the time of the most important development in human history. The way we live today is a result of the Neolithic Revolution, when people began discovering technology to cultivate crops and domesticate animals. Pottery became widely popular because people weren't constantly traveling from place to place. Architecture also became a bit more advanced. The Neolithic Era was the first of its kind in which we find good evidence for religious practices, often inspiring new forms of art. The picture to the left shows a human skull covered in plaster. When people died, their bodies were often buried under the home. Their skulls were removed, covered in plaster and decorated with paint to create very life-like figures. Dome of the Rock located on Temple Mount in Jerusalem Middle Eastern Temple Architecture Middle eastern architecture often encompassed both secular and religious concepts. They utilized the "arabesque" pattern style. A distinctive form of middle eastern architecture is the "minaret." The basic form a minaret includes a base, a shaft, and a gallery. They are used to provide a visual focal point. Virupaksha Temple located in Hampi in the state of Karnataka in Southern India. The Liurong Temple, or the Temple of Six Banyan Trees, is an ancient Buddhist temple located in Guangzhou, China. Asian Art Japanese printmaking is also known as "woodblock printing." It is different from western printmaking in that it uses water-based inks rather than oil-based inks allowing for a broad rage of vivid colors, glazes and transparencies. The Great Wave off Kanagawa by Hokusai Calligraphy, the art of beautiful writing, is an ancient art form in both Chinese and Japanese cultures. Both share the same basic writing styles: seal script, clerical script, regular script, semi-cursive, and cursive. It is most often written in ink on mulberry paper. Today, calligraphy is mandatory for Asian elementary school students and a popular area of study for high school and college students. The image is first drawn onto washi, Japanese paper, then glued onto a piece of wood. Wood is then cut away based on drawing outlines. A baren is used to press the paper against the inked woodblock to apply ink to the paper. Architecture of Ancient Greece and Rome The Parthenon is a temple in Greece dedicated to the goddess Athena. It is considered the most important survived building of classical Greece and the height of the development of the Doric Order. In Ancient Greece, society was broken up between the free people and the slaves. Democracy was developed in 500 B.C. Greek life was dominated by religion, so their temples were the biggest and the most beautiful. They also were greatly involved in politics, so their architecture also reflected civic pride. Greek Frieze The Romans invented the basic forms of technology and architecture that we still use today! Sewer and irrigation systems, roads, bridges, and even modern-day medicinal practices all had their beginnings in ancient Greece and Rome. Roman Coliseum The basic architectural structures of the arch, vault, and dome were all developed in ancient Greece and Rome. Roman aqueducts built with remarkable efficiency supplied over 1 million cubic metres of water to the ancient city everyday! Renaissance The Renaissance was a cultural movement the spread through Europe during the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. Beginning in Italy, Renaissance thinking affected literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, and religion. Renaissance artists searched for realism and human emotion in their work. Jan van Eyck Jan van Eyck was a Flemish painter often considered one of the most significant Northern European painters of the 15th century. His portrait of a Man in a Turban (left) is thought to have been a self-portrait. His Ghent Altarpiece was probably originally designed by his older brother Hubert, but was finished by Jan van Eyck following his brother's death. Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci has been described as the epitome of the Renaissance. His art clearly represented the humanist ideals of the time period. His self portrait in red chalk (left) and Mona Lisa (top) are just a few among the many internationally acclaimed works. Michelangelo Michelangelo was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer. He is archetype of a Renaissance man. Among other incredibly well-known pieces, Pieta (top right) and Sistine Chapel (left) are just two examples of Michelangelo's brilliance. Fra' Filippo Lippi Fra' Filippo Lippi was a famous Italian painter in the 15th century. His Madonna and Child (below) and Barbadori Altarpiece (above) reflect his religious inspiration. Sandro Botticelli was an Italian painter that is said to have represented the linear grace of the Early Renaissance. He is best known for his works The Birth of Venus (right) and Primavera (left). Sandro Botticelli The Baroque period, originating in 1600, directly followed the Protestant Reformation and was supported by the Roman Catholic Church. Art from this period was characterized by religious themes, exaggerated movements, and easily interpreted detail. The aristocracy of the time saw the dramatic elements of architecture and sculptures reflecting triumphant power and control. Leaders wanted art to speak to the illiterate rather than the educated. Baroque Rembrandt, Dutch painter and printmaker, is often considered to have more significantly contributed to the Baroque style than any other painter of the time. He is most known for his portraits. His contemporaries noted his great ability to interpret biblical stories. The Storm on the Sea of Galilee (below, left) and the Night Watch (below, right) are just a few of his brilliant pieces. Chiaroscuro is the use of strong contrasts between dark and light. The example below is from Dutch artist Nikolaus Knüpfer in his vision of Christ Before Pilate. Caravaggio was an Italian artist active in Europe during the Baroque period. His combination of realistic observation and dramatic use of lighting greatly influenced the Baroque school of art. Basket of Fruit and The Musicians by Caravaggio Neo-Classical This age was associated with the Western movement of art and literature that drew inspiration from "classical" Greek and Roman times. It took place in the 18th and 19th centuries coinciding with the Age of Enlightenment. Jacques-Louis David was a French painter during the neo-classical age whose analytical style of painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo childishness. His Oath of Horatii (left, bottom) and Napoleon and the Saint-Bernard Pass (left, top) represent a few of his history painting. Thomas Jefferson began work on the Monticello (below) in 1768 making it a neoclassical masterpiece. After visiting France in 1794, he remodeled it adding an octagonal dome. Romanticism Originating in Europe at the very end of the 18th century and reaching its peak between 1800 and 1840, the Romantic period validated strong emotion and made spontaneity a desirable characteristic. Art was based on imagination and "feelings." John Constable of England is best known for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home. Surprisingly, he was never financially successful and sold more paintings in France than his homeland. His paintings Dedham Vale (above, left) and The Hay Wain (right) are among his more famous works. Francisco Goya was a Spanish painter and printmaker who is often considered one of the first "modern" artists. His imagination and bold handling of paint has inspired many contemporary artists like Picasso. La Cometa (left) and Charles IV of Spain and His Family (below) are just a few of his more notable pieces. Realism In a sense, "Realism" was exactly what it sounded like. Subjects were depicted according to how they existed in reality without embellishing the truth. It essentially began in France in the 1850s as a polar opposite to Romanticism. Gustave Courbet of France was a leader in the realist movement. He is known as an artist unafraid to make a daring social criticism in his work. His Burial at Omans and self-portrait (below) are perfect examples of his style. French painter Edouard Manet is said to have inspired the transition from realism to impressionism and his art is thought of as the birth of modern art. His The Luncheon on the Grass (right) and Olympia (below) are still considered masterpieces. Impressionism/Post-Impressionism Claude Monet was the most copious artist of the Impressionist period. The name "Impressionism" was actually inspired by his painting Impression, Sunrise (above). He was well-known for his magnificent ability to uniquely capture nature, like in his early painting View At Rouelles, Le Havre (right). Dutch, post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh was known during the 20th century for his irregular beauty, passionate honesty, and vivid color. Suffering from mental illness, van Gogh was ironically not recognized by many of his time and is still appreciated by only few today. His paintings The Starry Night (below, left) and Bedroom in Arles (below, right) are among his more notable works. Impressionism began among Paris-based artists in the late 19th century. The style was based on small, thin brushstrokes, attention to light, emphasis on ordinary subject matter, and abnormal visual angles. Mary Cassatt was an American painter and printmaker; however, she spent a majority of her life in France. She did not identify herself with any particular art movement because she experimented with a variety of styles, but she was well-known among the Impressionist community. Her paintings Summertime (right) and Tea(far right) exhibit many Impressionist qualities. Auguste Rodin, or simply Rodin, was a French sculptor. His work went against traditional forms of sculpting, a quality for which he was criticized for throughout his lifetime. He refused to change his style, and he is now considered one of the most superior artists of the time period. His The Thinker (right) and The Shade (left) are a few of his most famous pieces. Modern European Art 1907-1960 Fauvism was a style that stressed painterly qualities and a strong sense of color. Artists shied away from the realistic qualities of previous ages. Leaders of the movement included Henri Matisse and André Derain. Expressionism is a style that originated in Germany in the early 20th century. It's based on the distortion of reality to present an emotional effect. Matthias Grünewald and El Greco were popular artists of the time period. The Scream by Edvard Munch "View of Toledo" by El Greco Spearheaded by artistic geniuses like Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, Cubism is often considered one of the most influential art movements of all time. Subjects are broken up and restructured abstractly to represent a new idea. Henri Matisse Portrait of Madame Matisse and Woman with a Hat Georges Braque, Violin and Candlestick Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon Dadaism began in Switzerland in 1916 and quickly spread to the rest of Europe. It was the genesis of abstract art. Dada leaders were anti-war and anti-traditional. They revolutionized the art of collage, photomontage, assemblage, and readymades to express reality. Hannah Höch and Raoul Hausmann were leaders of the movement. Hannah Höch, Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany Raoul Hausmann ABCD (Self-portrait) Beginning in the 1920s, Surrealism focuses on the element of surprise and unexpected adjacency. Leader André Breton noted that the Surrealist movement was nothing short of a revolution. Max Ernst, L'Ange du Foyer ou le Triomphe du Surréalisme Max Ernst, The Elephant Celebes Modern American Art 1920-present Frank Lloyd Wright was an American artist, architect and interior designer. Coining the term "organic architecture," Wright believed in designing structures that are in harmony with nature. His Falling Waters (right) has been noted to be the greatest American work of all time. His studio on Chicago Avenue is pictured below. Born in Wisconsin, Georgia O'Keeffe gained the attention of the art community through her up-close portraits, viewed as if through a magnifying class. She later moved to New Mexico, where her works depicted life there. Her pieces Pineapple Bud (right) and Blue and Green Music (far right) are just a few of her works. An extremely famous African-American painter, Jacob Lawrence described his art as "dynamic cubism." His self-portrait depicted below shows his cubist style. Dorothea Lange was a very effective American photographer and photojournalist. Her work during the Depression era greatly increased her popularity. Her photo entitled Migrant Mother (above right) and a picture depicting Japanese children pledging allegiance to the American flag (above far right) are just a few of her more popular pictures. A celebrated and rather controversial artist, Andy Warhol became a leading figure in the movement known as pop art. Pop art combined artistic expression with celebrity culture and advertisement. He was a pioneer in computer-generated art. The Andy Warhol Museum in Pennsylvania is the largest museum in the country dedicated to a single artist. Andy's version of the Last Supper and his Campbell's Soup are depicted below. Another prominent American pop artist, Roy Lichtenstein defined his work through use of parody. His work heavily influenced the "comic book style" we know today. Drowning Girl (right) and Whaam! (far right) are a few of his more famous works.
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