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Flower Structure and Function
Transcript of Flower Structure and Function
supports flower 1. Seed Development
at base of flower
part of flower stalk
bearing floral organs Sepal
leaf-like structure at flower base
protects young flower bud
calyx: all sepals collectively Source Page Introduction to HORTICULTURE Fourth Edition
enlarged base of pistil
matures to become fruit Ovule
female reproductive cells
contains female gametes
located in ovaries
ovules become seeds on fertilization Style
stalk of pistil
through which pollen
tube grows Organs Flower Tissues Organs
located in & above sepals
large, colorful, scented, & produce nectar sometimes
encloses the flower as a bud
corolla: all petals collectively Stamen
male part of flower consisting of anther & filament
produces pollen Pistil (or Carpel)
female part of flower
consisting of stigma, style, & ovary
bears ovules Stamen Filament
supports the anther Anther
produces pollen Pistil Cells Stamen Stigma
sticky top of carpel
receptive surface for pollen grains Pollen
male reproductive cells
grains containing male gametes Pistil Miranda Wentz, Gabby Robinson, Stacia Dwelle Fruit Types Produce typical fruits
formed from ovary
protects developing seeds
helpful in seed dispersal Gymnosperms Angiosperms produce seed cones
instead of flowers Types of Flowers Complete vs. Incomplete Complete flower: includes sepal(s), petal(s), stamen(s), pistil(s).
Incomplete flower: lacks one or more of these parts. Perfect vs. Imperfect Perfect: flowers containing both male and female reproductive parts (stamen & pistil).
Imperfect: contains only male OR female parts. Flower Inflorescences Organ System: Flower Seeds -mature, fertilized ovules, or eggs contained in fruit. Pollination Pollination: when pollen grains are transferred from the anther to stigma.
plants rely on animals, wind, water, etc.
when the pollen reaches the stigma, a pollen tube grows down the style until it reaches the ovules /Pistil *Perianth: all sepals and petals fused together Cyme
flat-topped inflorescence Spike
elongated inflorescence with central axis
sessile flowers: flowers attached without stem or stalk Corymb
a flat-topped inflorescence having a main vertical axis & branches of equal length Umbel
inflorescence having several branches arising from a common point. Raceme
elongated inflorescence with central axis
axis includes pedicels Panicle
elongated inflorescence with a central axis which has branched branches Fleshy vs. Dry Fruit Fleshy Fruit: fruit composed of a soft & fleshy material with seed or seeds enclosed.
Ex. blueberry, peach, watermelon Fertilization: when one sperm nucleus fuses with the egg cell nucleus, forming a zygote that will become a seed.
the other sperm nucleus fuses with two nuclei in ovule to create endosperm Cross-pollination: when pollen grains from flowers on one plant transfer to stigmas of flowers on another plant.
occurs between closely related plants Hybrid: the offspring resulting
from cross-pollinating two different
varieties of a species. Goal of Cross-pollination: create hybrid cultivars that have improved traits or characteristics. -arrangement of flowers on stem Spadix
a spike with a thickened, fleshy axis, usually enveloped by a showy bract
bract called a spathe Catkin
a spike, raceme, or cyme composed of unisexual flowers without petals
unit droops downward Head
rounded or flat-topped cluster of sessile flowers *Some flowers may be designed for specific methods of reproduction. Dry Fruit: fruit consisting of seeds enclosed in a fruit wall that is hard & brittle when mature.
Ex. pea, sunflower, oak vs. Seed embryo: complete miniature plant in resting stage.
includes root, stem, and cotyledon(s) Endosperm: specialized tissue holding stored food for plant's first stage of growth. Seed coat: tissue that surrounds
embryo & endosperm protecting
the seed. Germination: process of events whereby seed embryo goes from dormant state to active growing state.
necessary environmental conditions = moisture, oxygen, optimal temperature, & sometimes light