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Unit 8: Civil Rights

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Brian Patterson

on 24 May 2017

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Transcript of Unit 8: Civil Rights

I. Historical Review => Civil Rights
B. Civil War (1861-1865)
1. 620,000 dead
2. Ends slavery
C. 13th Amendment 1865
1. Abolishes slavery
A. Triangular Trade
1. Transatlantic Slave trade
2. 15,000,000
3. 16th - 19th centuries
D. 14th Amendment (1868)
1. Aimed at protecting recently freed slaves
2. Life, liberty, property => Due process
3. Bill of Rights applies to states
E. Jim Crow
2. Thomas Rice 1828
1. Segregation laws enacted
during Reconstruction
3. Lasted until 1965
4. Lack of economic power
Focus on 3 major roles:
II. Courts
Time Period:
1954 - 1968
Brown v Board of Education
2. Sends signal to activists that the Supreme Court is
1. Overturns
Plessy v Ferguson
a. "Separate but equal"
B. Howard University
1. Historical Black College
a. Product of segregation
2. 1930's Howard becomes law school power
house for African Americans
a. Thurgood Marshall
(1) Argues
Brown v Board of Education
(2) Becomes 1st African American Justice (1967)
3. Years in planning - Long time in coming (1930's)
C. National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People (NAACP)
1. Strong legal fund
2. Tackles issues of segregation in courts
a. Argues "separate" is NOT "equal"
(1) Graduate programs in colleges
b. Problem: how do you PROVE separate is
NOT Equal
(2) Kenneth Clark- Doll test
(a) White = Good
(b) Black = Bad
(c) Scientific "evidence" for the idea that
separate is NOT equal
(1) 1951 Brown v Board of Education (starts)
D. Earl Warren
1. Eisenhower - Chief Justice (1953)
2. Governor of California x 3
a. Orders Japanese internment WWII
3. Determined to end segregation...
E. Brown v Board of Education (1954)
1. (9-0) decision ending segregation
2. Violates 14th Amendment
III. Religion
A. Church plays critical role
1. Foundation of movement
2. Black & white church with Jewish lawyers
B. Southern Christian Leadership Conference
1. SCLC - 1957
2. Non-violent crusade against second-
class citizenship
3. Made up of mostly African American
4. Martin Luther King, Jr.
a. Two traditions:
(1) Southern religious tradition: Exodus
(2) Gandhian tradition: non-violence
(a) Oxymoron
Literal Oxymoron Examples
Instinctual Oxymoron
Non-violent resistance
Being attacked
Don't fight back
C. Strategy of non-violence
1. Passive resistance
a. Turn the other cheek
2. Global response
a. Media publishes images
b. American tradition = oxymoron
c. Global decolonization
(2) Political pressure
b. Strategy predicated on violence
c. Protesters are trained
IV. Students
A. 3 types of challenges to segregation
1. Brown v Board... challenged legal
2. Strategy of non-violence - challenged
3. Students - challenge social basis
a. Focus on future of society
B. Two student organizations emerge
1. Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee - SNCC "snick"
2. Congress Of Racial Equality - CORE
1. White, middle class, college students
3. Created in 1940's
4. 1960 Greensboro, NC "sit in"
2. Focused on non-violence
5. 1961 Freedom Rides
a. Desegregate interstate travel
a. Lunch counter segregation
6. CORE --> Radical
a. White activists killed attracts headlines
D. SNCC - "snick"
1. Founded in 1960
2. Inspired by SCLC
3. Freedom Rides (1961)
a. CORE attacked, SNCC takes over
4. 1961-1964 CORE/SNCC focused on registering
African American voters
V. Change Through the Vote
A. 15th Amendment (1870)
1. Gave African American men the right to vote
B. Freedom Summer- 1964
2. Register as many African Americans as possible
1. Focus on Mississippi - 6% registered
a. 3 things that stopped the African American vote:
(1) Intimidation
(2) The impact of their vote was in question
(3) Literacy tests
Harvard takes the Louisiana 1964 literacy test
3. Outcome of Freedom Summer
a. 80,000 African Americans registered
b. 37 churches bombed
(1) Three SNCC volunteers killed:
VI. Challenges and Changes in the Movement
A. de facto segregation
1. Segregation that exists by customary practice
2. Northern states
B. de jure segregation
1. Segregation that exists by law
2. Southern states
a. White flight
3. Harder to change
D. Urban violence erupts
1. Race riots in 100 cities 1967
C. Political victories
1. Civil Rights Act 1964
a. President Johnson
b. Prohibits discrimination based on race, sex,
religion, or national origin
2. Voting Rights Act 1965
a. President Johnson
c. African American voter registration in the South
b. Eliminates "literacy tests"
2. African Americans start pulling away from commitment
to non-violence
a. African American Veterans
(1) High profile lynchings
(2) Survive communists - Killed by racists at home
(1) Visiting African Presidents face
(1)Jimmy Wilson - $1.95
"The negro fought in the war, and he's not going to keep taking the shit we're dishing out. We are in a race with time. If we don't act, we are going to have blood on the streets."
-Vice President Johnson 1962
E. Malcolm X (1925 - 1965)
1. Born Malcolm Little
2. Imprisoned for burglary
a. Nation of Islam
(2) Elijah Muhammad
3. Advocates armed self defense
(1) Black Muslims
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca (1964)
b. Ballots or Bullets? "...let us try to use the ballot"
a. Returns a conflicted man
4. Breaks from Nation of Islam 1964
a. "No one can get out without trouble"
House Negro / Field Negro
Berkley - Self Defense
Ballot or Bullet?
F. Black Power 1966-1970
1. Stokely Carmichael of SNCC
a. Arrested 29 times
b. Stop recruiting whites, focus on "US"
2. Black Panthers 1966
a. Huey Newton / Bobby Seale
b. Political party aimed at stopping police brutality
VII. Unfinished Work
A. Jobs
1. 11% unemployment vs. 6% nationally
2. African Americans with college degrees have
twice the rate of unemployment as whites

B. Crime
1. There are 2.3 million prisoners in U.S.
a. Over 1 million of them are black
b. African Americans are 6 times more likely
to serve prison time than whites

C. Education
1. Drop out rates - African Americans : Whites
a. 1980 - 19.1% : 11.4%
b. 2007 - 8.4% : 5.3%
2. Affirmative action
a. Special efforts to hire or enroll groups that
have suffered because of discrimination
Full transcript