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The Neuropsychology of Inmates with ASPD
Transcript of The Neuropsychology of Inmates with ASPD
Riplee Royster Prevalence Rate of APD in Inmates Male v. Female Case of Frontal Lobe Issues and Murder:
Joel Rifkin In one study of both male and female inmates in Colorado, 24% of male inmates had APD and 18% of the female inmates had APD
Most studies of inmates find that all qualify for an APD diagnosis There is not a significant difference between male and female inmates, even though males are slightly more likely to have APD than females
Female inmates scored higher on the neuropsychological dysfunction scales as well as the executive dysfunction scale in this study
- Females significantly more memory problems, task-completion difficulties, and mild neurocognitive disorders Female Inmates v. Female Controls In the male v. female inmate study, female inmates and female controls were also compared
Inmates were much more likely to have executive dysfunction
- especially with decision-making and task-completion Executive Function and its Role in APD Executive function "...include[s] a collection of cognitive functions necessary for self-regulation and the regulation of socially appropriate behavior..."
Linked to APD
It is believed that EF dysfunction helps increase the risk of antisocial behavior by:
decreasing behavioral inhibitions
inability to expect behavioral consequences or to assess punishment & reward
damaging ability to create "socially appropriate behavior in challenging contexts" Executive Function Cognitive and behavioral processes:
Goal-oriented behavior & thought
Often in frontal lobe And Poor EF May Result in... Socially inappropriate behavior
Struggles with planning & problem solving
Poor memory People who have lifelong antisocial behaviors were found to have greater impairments in executive functions
EFs like working memory, attention, and spatial working memory are some of the most strongly associated with antisocial behavior Ultimately, more research is still needed to determine neurological causes Dolan & Park (2002) Studied incarcerated male patients at a maximum security hospital - all 29 qualified for an APD diagnosis
Found that they have issues with:
- Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)
deals with planning and set shifting
(which means focusing on examples
in one dimension and then being
able to switch focus elsewhere)
- Ventromedial prefrontal cortex
deals with behavioral restraint 2:36-3:50 Dolan (2012) 96 male inmates, all with APD
Impairment in planning ability
Impaired (again) in their set-shift response like the 2002 study Poor planning Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) "...are characterized by abnormalities in motor, sensory, and integrative functions..."
Also, they are "nonlife-threatening, anatomically nonspecific signs...regarded as evidence of a central nervous system defect, resulting in considerable sociopsychological dysfunction."
It has been suggested that people with APD have an
increased amount of NSS Lindberg et al. (2004) 14 male offenders in prison for murder, all with APD and a history of alcohol dependence
Offenders with APD had higher NSS scores than the controls
They also had significantly more abnormalities on the neurologic examination than the controls Laasko et al. (2000) 18 males with APD charged with a violent offense
All diagnosable alcoholics
Found a negative correlation between their PCL-R scores and hippocampal volumes
"It is...proposed that these regions in the posterior half of the hippocampus may be a critical part in the neural systems responsible for development of moral constitution, if we were to assume that conditioning, particularly contextual, for punishment and reward are associated with the socialization process."
"There are a number of other regions involved in various types of associative learning or conditioning, including the adjacent amygdala [18,25], which is densely interconnected with the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortices, which make these other potential candidate regions. Further studies of these will undoubtedly increase our knowledge on this rather uncharted subject." Frontal Lobe Issues Frontal lobe dysfunction has been linked to both antisocial and criminal behavior
Damage to prefrontal cortex in general has been linked to antisocial and violent behavior Raine et al. (1998) Studied 41 people who had been tried for murder in California
Their backgrounds were observed to see whether or not they had been psychosocially deprived or not
PET scans performed
Those who LACKED psychosocial deficits had prefrontal dysfunction and those who were psychosocially deprived did not have it Raine et al. (1998) Continued Murderers without the psychosocial deficits also had poorer orbitofrontal cortex functioning, especially in the right hemisphere
They believe this was found because it is associated with "...reduced responsivity to aversive, emotional activity and possibly an emotionally blunted personality lacking in conscience development."
Additionally, murderers without the psychosocial deficits had lower glucose metabolism in the frontal lobe as well
No definite hypothesis for why this was the case Thank you!