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Critical analysis of representations: Opium War in Britain and China —— High Tea

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XiaoSong Liu

on 25 March 2015

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Transcript of Critical analysis of representations: Opium War in Britain and China —— High Tea

` Hong Kong Thinking comes from Wellcome Collection's online game : High Tea Critical analysis of representations: Opium War in
Britain and China —— High Tea http://nanking.com/ Nanking Treaty High Tea Wellcome Collection High Tea is a brower-based strategy game based around the opium trade in China's Pearl Delta in the 1830s. It was commissioned as a part of the web presence for 'High Society', a Wellcome Collection exhibition that ran between November 2010 and Februray 2011 History Background The West The East British Empire Qing Empire (China) Begining in the 1720s, Canton merchants dealing with Western trade established their own guild, the Cohong, to monopolise trade; Peiking (Capital of Qing Empire) Canton Canton System:
1, western merchants have to pay cash for any purchased goods.
2, They could not enter the walled city of Canton
could not ride in seden chair, could not learn Chinese langugae
could not bring weapons or women to the thirteen Western factoires' or trading posts located on the bank of the Peal River outside the city walls.
3, They could only deal with hong merchants and could attempt no direct communications with Chinese officials; any communication with offcials went first to the Cohong and had to include the character for "petition".
Finally, if a regulation were violated or other problems developed, the Chinese halted all trade. British Products Tea Silks, spices,ceramics, arts...etc.. (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr Trade Import/Export Opium
Trade Bengal For Western merchants was that they had nothing that the Chinese wanted to buy. At Canton, stevedores would unload the cargo: From Britain, woolens and lead; and from goolds picked up in India and stop in Southeast Asia, camphor, tin, cotton piece goods, rattan, birds' nests, fish mawsm and spices. Opium smoker across the whole country.
From poor to rich
From high offcials to clerks and runners in country gonernment offices, from merchants and coolies to soldiers.
The most serious implications for China's political and social health was reported high number of somkers in the military and in government officese
10% of the population was a commonly accepted figure.
3%~5% of the population was addicted to the opium. The most significant one: Sliver http://www.wellcomecollection.org/whats-on/exhibitions/high-society/high-tea.aspx Reasons to ban Opium in China Lin Ze Xu What Lin did: Lin Zexu in Canton:
1, Make a name list
2, Arrest
3,even write a letter to Queen Victoria
4,set up a siege of the factories and their 350 foreigers.
(not water, food supply)
5, Get the opium from British sumgglers
6,decompose the opium (22 days) 1st step Finished 2nd step Spark Start the British superintendent of foreign trade had been, since 1834, a representative of the crown and not a merchant company, the british treated the siege and the seizure of opium as a national affront and a cause of war. How to get the money back? A letter back to London asked for war : free trade & Religion Fist Opium War 1839~1842 Nanking Treaty 1. Stop the war
2.Open 5 ports: Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Xia men, Ning Bo, Shanghai
3. Give Hong Kong island to British Empire
5.Realse British soilders.
6. There is no way for you to decide the tax rate anymore! ( for Qing Empire) My conclusion of the treaty Quzi:
1st: After the opium war, the Qing Empire signed lots inequal treaties, can you name them? What do you think these inequal treaties brough what kinds of harms for China?
2st. After opium wars, how many changes do you think happen in the Chinese economic social life? A discussion of opium and the Orient in nineteenth-century English culture is also necessarily a discussion of the dynamics of empire, for opium was deeply implicated in British colonial activities in the East. Several critics have asserted that various discourses of the nineteenth century are complicit in a universal, if often unconscious, conspiracy of exploitation and domination, a unilateral overwriting of other cultures by a hegemonic British scribe. -<Pleasures and Pains: Opium and the Orient in 19th-Century British Culture> Barry Milligan 1995:4 John Platt (painter), John Burnet (engraver) Chinese Representations 1759 James Flint In 1759, on behalf of the East India Company, Flint repaired for Tianjin to submit a memorial to the Qianlong Emperor in protest against official corruption in the foreign trade in Guangzhou. The Qing court threw him into jail in Macau for three years having violated official protocol in trying to address the emperor directly. Opium War TV Drama Opium War Moive BBC documentary about the British Empire Nanking Treaty and its impact on Chinese National Identity It was the first of many treaties between China and foreign nations that were called 'unequal' because China did all the giving and received nothing in return. Moreover, the Chinese Empire lost her authorities of her own lands. ( From Chinese aspect)
The Nanking Treaty be considered as the start of 'Century of Humiliation' for China. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00776k9 Melvyn Bragg discusses the Opium Wars with Yangwen Zheng, Lecturer in Modern Chinese History at the University of Manchester; Lars Laamann, Research Fellow in Chinese History at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London; Xun Zhou, Research Fellow in History at SOAS, University of London opium as a currency that not like sliver, it is really easy to carry around. desirable goods.
british is not the first one bring opium. Chinese also produce opium, but the quantities is really small 16th
smoking transform opium from medicine to luxury product. demands for opiums
sliver, africa, via trade, to China. running out sliver.
Chinese side:
100+ years humiliation history with western imperialists.
Government propaganda
positive side: modern China, contribute to urbenisation and comercialisation of China. happend century years ago. speed. towards this process.
It brought the Western knowledges
Lin Zu xu
open up the Chinese eyes much effects than his failure of anti-opium.
For 19th century China the Opium War was something of a sideshow and trading Hong Kong was a trivial cost to placate the transiently powerful foreigners. The Dynasty had much bigger internal problems to worry about.
From an economic view, the Opium War is the resulted from a balance of trade problem. Before the Opium War Britain sent silver(which from their other colonial areas) to China for buying the tea, but Chinese trade restrictions( Hig Tax, limited ports , rules) meant that Britain had nothing to sell in return.
Britain's attack was a mixture of governmental and private sector action. Notes Representation of Opium War in Britain Book Launched disscussion at HK Book Fair 2011
'The Opium War' by Julia Lovell Fu Manchu flash gordon Yellow Peril "The Yellow Terror In All His Glory", 1899 editorial cartoon Chinese Opium-Pipe. Illustration for Knight's Pictorial Gallery of Arts (London Printing and Publishing, c 1860). Chinese Opium Smokers. Illustration from Cassell's Picturesque Australasia by E E Morris (c 1889). 1878 Rare wood engraving featured in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper showing Opium smokers titled, "California -- An Evening in the Chinese Quarter of San Francisco Hundred years suffering centuries protest Rethink:
About the unequal treaty
If you are the god, you have the ablility to go back the time, will you change the history of Opium Wars?
Did Qing emperors really know about the war that clear? figures represented differently in media
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