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TOK Final Presentation
Transcript of TOK Final Presentation
to what degree should addictions be considered legitimate diseases or convenient excuses? addictions as legitimate diseases Other Areas of Knowledge perspectives on addictions as convenient excuse
definition of disease: an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
definition of addiction: a progressive illness that inhibits a person’s ability to moderate or quit even in the face of ongoing or harmful consequences general strengths:
-"Think of addiction as a brain disorder: the amygdyla, a pebble-sized structure in the midbrain, has the role of “Emergency Director." In crisis, it nudges logic over and takes the wheel when you must act quickly with little or no thought. After a period of over-indulging in something pleasurable, the amygdyla of someone genetically predisposed for addiction begins to normalize the level and frequency of that pleasure, eventually interpreting the absence of it as an emergency. The intellect knows it’s a false alarm but the “survival” response compels the person to do whatever’s necessary to use, often at great cost. Abuse can make life pretty ugly but without those nasty genes, an abuser generally has the ability to moderate or quit, as opposed to an addict, who, together with his/her own decision to recover, must have a special program of social support. Seeing addiction for what it is allows people to challenge any “weakness/immorality” concept they may have about it. The behaviors resulting from addiction may be subject to labeling, but the addiction itself is a disease. Of course, anyone with any illness ultimately has the responsibility to get the proper treatment." -Pine Grove Behavioral Health & Addiction Services (Woods' treatment center)
strengths specific to situation general weaknesses weaknesses specific to situation -On November 24, 2009, The National Enquirer reported an affair between Woods' & Rachael Uchitel history: when did addictions become evident in society?
-Is an addiction the responsibility of a person to control or the society to control by limiting the use of addictive substances and actions?
-Is it ethical to use addiction to rid the blame for ones actions?
-Tiger Woods apologized to all his fans, but did he really have to? He had illness which was a personal matter, yet he felt that he "let people down"
-On December 5, 2009, 2 more women emerge, Woods admits to 'letting his family down' - "Addiction is due 50 percent to genetic predisposition and 50 percent to poor coping skills. This has been confirmed by numerous studies. One study looked at 861 identical twin pairs and 653 fraternal twin pairs. Based on the differences between the identical and non-identical twins, the study showed 50-60% of addiction is due to genetic factors"
"One study looked at 231 people who were diagnosed with drug or alcohol addiction, and compared them to 61 people who did not have an addiction. It discovered that if a parent has a drug or alcohol addiction, the child had an 8 times greater chance of developing an addiction"
- addictionsandrecovery.org -"The fact that addiction crosses all socio-economic boundaries confirms that addiction is a disease. People who don't know about addiction will tell you that you just need to be stronger to control your use. But if that was true then only unsuccessful people or unmotivated people would have an addiction, and yet 10% of high-functioning executives have an addiction. " -addictionsandrecovery.org
"Sex addiction by itself is not a diagnosis we currently use."
"It's like a lot of patterned behaviors that could be better described as OCD traits, are people in a loving relationship oversexed? Is loving sex a sign of addiction? If it feels good, you do it."
"A chronic adulterer who gets caught might hide behind the term sexual addiction." -Tiger Woods:
"For 45 days from the end of December to early February, I was inpatient therapy receiving guidance for the issues I'm facing. I have a long way to go. But I've taken my first steps in the right direction."
-referred to "repeated irresponsible behavior" & stated
"I was unfaithful, I had affairs, I cheated."
-his lack of reference to sexual addiction can be seen as a rebuttal for the disease since he himself doesn't acknowledge his actions as those pertaining to sex addiction (However, his actions portrayed a 12 step program which is commonly used as a means of treatment for the disease) -Sex addiction is not recognized by the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Addictions can be genetically based, but sometimes they do not surface in people who aren't exposed to an addictive lifestyle or factor does the use of science confirm the diagnosis of addictions as a psychological disease? does the fact that addictions affect all types of people confirm their diagnosis as well? -Robert Weiss (Executive Director of the Sexual Recovery Institute) listed in an interview with CBS reasons why he believes that Tiger Woods suffers from sex addiction: - a New York Times article states, "In the long, self-lacerating statement that he read to a nationwide audience last week, Tiger Woods never used the words sex addiction.Yet by publicly apologizing for his infidelity, saying he was returning to his religious faith and admitting that he has “work to do,” he appeared to be carrying out several steps of a common 12-step treatment for just that."
-Although Tiger does not formally address the media with an explanation of sexual addiction for his behavior, he has entered rehab centered around addictions, leading the press and public to believe that he has been diagnosed and is seeking treatment
What 'rules' are there in labeling sexual addiction? If you're only participating with one person, are you still an addict?
How does societal views on multiple partners influence labeling of addicts? Does labeling someone with a disease lessen the responsibility and perception of the individual? -Craig Fabrikant: psychologist at Hackensack University Medical Center in New Jersey stated "I think it’s more of a habit than an addiction,” he says. “I would classify it as OCD — more of an obsession or compulsion than an addiction.”
Guffin Mopes, blogger, writes:
"When did accountability fade away? You have spouses destroying marriages because of their so-called addiction. You have people building up tens of thousands, even hundreds of thousands, of debt due to an “addiction.” If these people were forced to account for their actions, you’d almost surely hear the response, 'but I couldn’t help it.'" How important is personal interaction in determining opinions of addiction? -"Some psychology professionals and many laymen now mean 'addiction' to include abnormal psychological dependency on such things as gambling, food, sex, pornography, computers, internet, work, exercise, idolizing, watching TV or certain types of non-pornographic videos, spiritual obsession, cutting and shopping"- Wikipedia
- does the fact that it's possible to be addicted to any action or tangible item create a flaw in the dynamics of addictions?
where do you draw the line between an innocent fixation and a harmful obsession that needs to be treated? does the nature of the action determine whether or not it is classified as a disease? -In the 19th century, drug addiction, alcoholism, and other addictions were seen as a sign of akrasia—or a weakness of ones will.
-But after much scientific research into the brain made possible by technological advances in the late 20th century replaced this “psychosocial model” with the “disease model”.
-the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) released the results of a national poll on “Public Attitudes on Substance Abuse, Treatment and the Prospects of Recovery" which showed that:
•Nearly 2/3 of respondents would not think less of a person who was currently addicted to a substance.
-this shows a shift from an individual responsibility to a negative view of substances, which has led to the "War on Drugs"
and such campaigns as "Just Say No" by Nancy Reagan Human sciences:
Can the blame be placed on addictive substances themselves? Are these inevitably “addictive” substances? Are some activities inescapably addictive? Or are the addicts themselves to blame?
-Most psychologists believe that the drugs were to blame in cases of addiction, and through a University of Michigan study, researchers concluded that rats pressed a lever to inject themselves with numerous types of 'addictive' drugs, suggesting that the drugs were causing addictive behaviors
-Is the addiction to an actual drug or an unhealthy environment which causes someone to seek pleasure? Conclusion:
-Addictions are subjective,
it is difficult to discover the actual motives behind actions (whether genetics, chemical dependency in the amygdala, or convenient excuse)
-if the substance has a chemical effect on the brain it is more likely to be an addiction whereas if it is an action based on impulse control, it is more likely an excuse
-In Tiger Woods' case, though he never mentioned having a sex addiction, the media, by assuming such classification, has cleared some of the blame from Woods' himself, and placed it on the disease
On November 27, 2009 Woods' crashes his SUV into a fire hydrant and tree outside his mansion at 2:25 am On November 29, 2009, Uchitel denies the affair On November 30, 2009 Woods withdraws from the Chevron World Challenge, citing injuries from the crash
On December 3, 2009, Tiger apologizes on his website for 'transgressions' and says he is 'dismayed' by 'tabloid scrutiny'; Another woman, Jaime Grubbs, claims an affair with Woods and presents 300 text messages & a voicemail to prove it
On December 7, 2009, sources who are familiar with Woods' frequent trips to Las Vegas reveal that there could possibly be dozens of women
On December 11, 2009, Woods takes an indefinite leave from golf "to focus [his] attention on being a better husband, father, and person"
On January 15, 2010, Mississippi news stations reported that Woods checked into Pine Grove Behavioral Health and Addiction Services (one of the best sex addiction treatment centers in the nation) comments on the blog include:
-"I brought this same idea up in my psychology of addictions class, and the teacher argued it away. He said that genetics play a huge factor (for susceptibility to addictions), and that was it.
I don’t believe that junk.
A lot of it is just weak willpower, and society keeps finding new ways to pass the buck. People need to take responsibility for their own actions!"
-"In a way, yes you are correct, I would say an addiction is a chemical dependancy. i.e. heroin, smoking, alcohol ……. but then there is that drug adreneline, which I know all too well is very easy to get hooked on. Ok, I do not understand shopping addicition but I can see how maybe they get addicted to the feeling and the chemical changed in their body that shopping gives.
This was true in the addicitions that I have found in my life. However, I think the major difference is that its internal biological chemicals that some of us get addicted to, against man-made chemicals that are added to our bodies."
-general response of people who have never suffered from an addiction or been exposed to someone with that lifestyle might view addictions as a weakness in will power and not a considerable disease.
Cloud, John. "Sex Addiction: Real Disease or Excuse for Men to Cheat? - TIME." Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com. 28 Feb. 201128. Web. 20 Mar. 2011. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2050027-2,00.html>.
Jackson, Brenda. "Are You A Sex Addict? | WOLDCNews - WOL DC's Home for the Truth." WOLDCNews: WOL - Where Information Is Power. 15 Feb. 2010. Web. 20 Mar. 2011. <http://woldcnews.com/lifestyle/brendajackson/are-you-a-sex-addict/>.
Mcneil, Donald. "An Apology with Echoes of 12 Steps." New York Times. New York Times, Feb. 2010. Web.
Simon, M. "A History of Addiction." Power and Control. Nov. 2006. Web. 20 Mar. 2011. <http://powerandcontrol.blogspot.com/2006/11/history-of-addiction.html>.
Stern, Andrew. "Tiger Woods Case Puts Spotlight on Sex Addiction| Reuters." Business & Financial News, Breaking US & International News | Reuters.com. 19 Feb. 2010. Web. 20 Mar. 2011. <http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/02/19/us-woods-addiction-idUSTRE61I61S20100219>.