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Human Growth and Development
Transcript of Human Growth and Development
By:Michael & Shania
There are a set of principles that characterizes the process of growth and development. These principles are characteristics that describe typical development as a predictable and orderly process; that is,we can predict how most children develop and that they will develop at the same rate and at about the same time as other children.
Development process from the head downward
This principle describes the direction of growth and development.According to this principle,the child gains control of the head first,then the arms, and then the legs. infants develop control of the head and face movements within the first two months,they are able to lift themselves up by using their arms.By 6 to 12 months of age.Infants start to gain leg control and may be to crawl,stand,or walk.
Development from the center of the body outward
This is the development that also desribes the direction of the development. This means the spinal cord develops before outer parts of the body. The childs arms develops before the fingers and toes. Finer and toe muscles used in fine motor dexterityl are the last to develop a physical development.
Development depends on maturation and learning
Maturation refers to the sequential characteristic of biological growth and development. The biological changes occur in the sequential order and give children new abilities changes in the brain and nervous system account largly for maturation. These changes in the brain and nervous system help children to improve in thinking (congnitive) and motor (physical) skills. Also children must mature to a certain point before they can progress to new skills. For example, a four month old cannot use lanuage because the infant brain has not matured enough to allow the child to talk.
Development proceeds from the simple to the more complex
Children use their congnitive and language skills to reason and solve problems. For example, learning relationships between things(how things are similar), or classification, is an important ability in cognitive development. The cognitive process of learning how an apple and orange are alike begins with the most simplistic or concrete thought of describing the two. Seeing no relationship a preschool will decsribe the objects according to some property.
Growth and development is a
As a child developes, he or she adds to the skills they already have and the new skills become the basis for further acheivements and mastery of skills.Most children follow a similar pattern.One stage of development makes the foundation for the next stage.
Growth and Development proceed from the general to specific
In motor development the infant will be able to grasp or object with the whole hand before using the thumb and forefinger. The infants first motor movements are very generalized, undirected, and reflexive, waving arms or kicking before being able to reach or creep toward an object
There are individual rates of growth and develpment
Each child is different and the rates at which individual children grow is different. Although the patterns and sequences for growth and development are usually the same for all children,the rates at which children reach developmental stages are different.Understandingthis fact if differences in development should cause caution about using and relying on age and stage characterisics to describe or label children.
An understanding of the principles of development helps to plan appropriate activities and simulating enrichment experiences for childern ,and providing a basis for encouraging young childerns learning.