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Transcript of TIMELINE
·Weight: 40 kg
·Hominid situated among large primates and humans. He used sticks and stones to help you in your tasks. 3500000/2500000 years ·Size: 1.59 m
·Weight: 50 kg
·Unable to speak
·Hominid considered the first human because it made instruments in a conscious way. He lived in Africa. 2300000/1800000 years ·Size: 1.60 m
·Weight: 60 kg
·Discovery of fire
·He mastered the technique of the battle of stone and made bifaces and small axes. It colonized Europe and Asia. 1900000/400000 years ·Height: 1.65 m
·Weight: 80 kg
·Manufacturing of specialized tooling.
·It emerged in the Middle East and developed in Europe. It coexisted with Homo sapiens sapiens, but ended up going extinct. 150000/35000 years ·Height: 1.70 m
·Weight: 70 kg
·First samples of art
·Manufacture of bone and antler tools.
·Physical appearance, volume and cerebral complexity of the current human being. It colonized America and Oceania. 120000 years (40000 years in Europe) 2300000 a.C. PALEOLITHIC 8000 a.C. NEOLITHIC PREHISTORY HISTORY 5.OOO BC. MESOPOTAMIA GREECE 4.000/3100 b.C. ROMAN EMPIRE The palelotític is the stage of prehistory characterized by the use of chipped stone tools, but also other organic raw materials were used to build various utensils. They were nomads. To feed themselves they had to collect fruit, fish and hunt. Of their prey, they took advantage of everything: the meat for food, hides for shelter themselves, bones to make instruments and tendons for making ropes. They lived in caves for protection from cold, heat and rain. They began to paint the walls of the caves with strange symbols, animals and hunting scenes. The need to store, transport, cook the food provided the development of ceramics. The observation of animals around on him and livestock domestication the birth of livestock. They began to cultivate cereals (wheat, barley, oats …) and legumes (lentils, peas, etc.). It was the origin of agriculture. In the Neolithic period people no longer had to move to find food, they become sedentary. 1.200/146 b.C. ·The summers descovered the writing. ·There they encounter the first city-state. It siutuated between the river Nile. EGYPT The two crowns was joined. They started to build the pyramids;
Featured are the pyramids Cheops, Chephren, Mycerinus, in Giza. Kefren Keops Micerino The place where the egyptians buried her pharaohs were inside the pyramids.
They were buried with their treasures and so the pyramids had traps for the thieves couldn't steal the treasure. They were polytheistic because they believed in a lot of gods.
The most important were: Amon Horus Ra Osiris BELIEFS:
Their religion was polytheistic, as the egyptians.
Their gods were anthropomorphic: resemble humans physically and psychologically, as human beings, ate, loved, laughed, cried and struggled. The Greeks believed that Zeus was the father of all gods and all man, they believed that the gods lived on top of Mount Olympus, the mountain sacred. Rome conquered all the territories on the italian peninsula. HOW DID ROME BACOME AN EMPIRE? Between 500 and 250 BC. Between the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Roman territories stretched noth to south from the British Isles to the Sahara Desert, and esat to west from Mesopotamia to the Iberian Peninsula. WHY DID THE ROMAN EMPIRE DECLINE? crisis of the 3rd century. The recovery of the 4th century. The fall of the Roman Empire. Peasants and soldiers revolved and anarchy spread.
Trade collapsed. Germanic tribes invaded from the north.
The Persians attacked from the east. In 350, the Huns entered Germanic territory In 395, Theodosius died. In 476 Western Roman Empire end. Each empire had its own emperor and its own institution. The Eastern Roman Empire was mainteined for another thousand years, but under a new name: Byzantine Empire. WHAT WAS SOCIETY LIKE IN ANCIENT ROME? Citizens Non-citizens freedmen women slaves THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES WHAT WERE THE GERMANIG MIGRATIONS? They had right. They could own property, go to trials, vote and get married. The Angles and the Saxons, in Britain The Ostrogoths, and later the Lombards, in Italy The Visigoths, in Spain The Franks, in France WHO WERE THE VISIGOTHS? WHAT WAS THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE LIKE? WHAT IS ISLAM? WHAT WAS THE CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE? At the beginning of the 6th century, the Frank expelled the Visigoths from Gaul. The Visigoths then went to the Iberian Peninsula. During the second half of the 7th century, there was constant fighting between the kings and nobles. The Visigothic kingdom disappeared after the Muslim invasion in 711. The Visigoths entered the Roman Empire at the end of the 4th century to escape from the Huns. In 410, the Visigoths attacked Rome. The Byzantine Empire Justinian A slow decline It resisted the Germanic invasions.
It capital was Constantinople, formery Byzantium. He was the most important Byzantine emperor.
Justinian tried to rebuild the Roman Empire.
His armies conquered many territories in North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula and Italy. After Justinian's death, the Byzantine Empire began to lose territory.
By 15th century, only Constantinople remainded.
In 1453, the city was conquered by the Turks.
End of the Middle Ages. 662, Muhammad moved to Medina (Hegira). Marks the start of Muslim calendar.
628, Muhammad conquered Mecca.
Koran is the sacred book of the Muslims The highest authority of the empire was the caliph.
1661, Caliph Ali wass assassinated and the Umayyad family took power.
The Islamic economy was based on agriculture, craftsmanship and trade. 732, Charles Martel defeated the Muslim in France, at the Battle of Tours.
800, the Pope crowned Charlemagne as the new Emperor of the West.
843, Charles, Louis and Lothair signed the Traty of Verdun. FEUDAL SOCIETY WHAT WAS FEUDALISM? HOW WAS MEDIEVAL SOCIETY ORGANISED? After the Carolingian Empire, Europe was divided into numerous kingdoms. The kings were very weak.
The peasants depend on the noble's protection. In exchange for protection the peasants had to work for the nobles, they became the nobles' serfs. Barons governed in the king's name in exchange for a fief. They paid homage to the king.
These lords could also have vassals, nobles of lower rank. They recived a smaller fief.
The court was formed by lawyers, clergy and soldiers. FIEF The fief had a castle where the lord lived. There were also villages were the peasants lived.
The manors had large forests when the peasants could hunt there or collect firewood.
The had to pay taxes if they use the mill, the oven or the press. Was divided in states Nobles Nobles or knights
Some nobles owned large fiefs. Others owned only thei horses and their weapons.
War was the nobles' main activity.
Nobles had to be ready to go to war, so they often trained in tournaments. Noblewomen
The most important funtion of noblewomen was to marry and have children to continue the family line.
Marriages were arranged by parents.
·They organised the servants, educated the children, and did sewing and weaving.
·They had to obey their husbands in everything.
·Women how didn't marry went into convents. Clergy The Pope was the head of the Church. He had great influence, and he could excommunicate a king.
Below the Pope:
·Religious orders (abbot)
·Friars, monks and nuns. Peasants Freemen: They could leave the fief, and take personal decisions. They worked on the lord's land and they paid rent but they kept some of the harvest. Serfs: They were completely subjected to the lord's authority.They couldn't leave the fief, or get married without permission. The Romanesque art aimed to spread religion and bring people closer to God. MEDIEVAL CITIES WHY DID EUROPE BECOME MORE PROSPEROUS? WHY DID CITIES GROW? WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF CRAFTSMEN? ·New farming techiques resulted in less work for peple. Many peasants had to migrate to cities to find work.
·There was a revival in trade. Many merchands went to live in the cities where the markets were.
·Cities offered peasants a better life. They weren't controlled by feudal lords. All the inhabitants were free Inhabitants
·Some merchands were very rich.
·Most were craftmen, shopkeepers or workerd in domestic service.
·Some were poor. They had no work and had to beg. Food production increased and there was less hunger. As a result, there was a sharp population increase.
·New land was created by cutting down forests and drainning marshes.
·The three-year system of crop ratoation.
·The mouldboard plough
· Irrigation became more widespread and new crops were introduced.
·Greater use of wind and water mills. WHY DID MORANCHIES GROW STRONGER? Population grew and consequently, there was greater demand for clothes and objects made of wood and metal.
Craftsmen made their products by hand and they worked in small workshops. From the 12th century, all artisians in the same profession joined a guild. Each guild had its own rules, which established members' rights and obligations.
Guilds controlled production and distributed raw materials.
Nobody could work in a trade if they didn't join a guild. In the 12th century, medieval economies inproved and the kings collected more taxes. They created their own armies.
The kings began to create parliments. The parliments didn't have a lot of power, the king always had the final desicion. Gothic cathedrals were build using new architectural techniques. They were very different from Romanesque cathedrals.