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Lecture 5: The Cold War

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Christian Knudsen

on 16 July 2013

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Transcript of Lecture 5: The Cold War

Lecture 5: The Cold War 1945-91
Phase 1: The Early Cold War 1945-53
Phase 2: Crisis and Escalation

Phase 3: Détente (1962-79)
Phase 4: 1979-91
The "cold war"?
Space Race
A world divided....
Many "Hot" Wars
Korean War 1950-3
Soviet war in Afghanistan 1979-89
Vietnam War 1955-75
Indonesian killings of 1965–66
1973 Chilean coup d'état
Mutually Assured Destruction
Arms Race
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
Sputnik 1 - first satellite
4 October 1957
Yuri Gagarin, the first person in space, 1961
Neil Armstrong, first man on moon, 1969
Perestroika ( "restructuring")
glasnost ("openness")
Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House, 1987
Thawing of US - Soviet relations in early 90s
Fall of the Berlin Wall (1990) and the end of the USSR (1991)
The end of World War 2 Review
1942 -- Axis Powers on top
Hitler surveys Paris in German occupied France, 1940.
Mussolini, 1940
Emperor Hirohito, supreme leader of Japan
Gambles of Axis Powers
Operation Barbarossa 1941
Attack on Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941
Holocaust enters worst stage:
The Final Solution (1942-5)
The tide turns -- 1942-44
Battle of Stalingrad 1942-3
German soldiers freeze and starve in winter of 1943
Pearl Harbor galvanizes American public support for War
American industry mobilizes
American Forces begin to retake Japanese
Battle of Midway 1942
Invasion of Normandy 1944 (D-Day)
End of the War - 1945
Germany fights on two fronts
Battle of Berlin, 1945
Mussolini captured and executed by Italian rebels - April 28, 1944
April 30, 1945
Kamikaze airstrikes 1945
Battle of Okinawa 1945
Beginning of the Cold War
Yalta Conference, Feb. 1945
Potsdam Conference, July-Aug. 1945
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, 1939
Europe Divided
1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état
Berlin Blockade, 1948-9
Marshall Plan
Europe and Japan devastated by war
Secretary of State George Marshall
Winston Churchill
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Joseph Stalin
Harry S. Truman
Truman Doctrine
A policy of "containment"
Greek Civil War 1946-9
Turkish Straits crisis 1946-53
Cold War spreads to Asia
Communists victory in China 1949
Mao Zedong
Chinese Civil War 1927-1950
Kuomintang (KMT) versus Communist Party of China (CPC)
Qing Dynasty 1644-1912
Republic of China (1912–15)
Revolution of 1911 - disposes last emperor of China - Puyi
Central authority struggles in response to warlordism -- China divided (1915–28)
1928 -- Most of China under rule of Kuomintang (KMT), an authoritarian single-party state
1946- Soviets refuse to pull out of Manchuria
Korean War 1950-3
North: Democratic People's Republic of Korea
South: Republic of Korea
Empire of Japan
Potsdam Conference (July–August 1945)
Soviet sphere
US sphere
Soviets arm the north
and help prepare
for war.
1950 north
invades south.
Korean Armistice Agreement - 1953
USA intervenes under UN banner
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - 1949
Khrushchev, Eisenhower and De-Stalinization
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Former 5 star General during World War 2
Nikita Khrushchev
Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union - 1956 "We will bury you."
Denounces Stalin, the cult of personality and purges.
-- increased reliance on missiles for defence, doctrine of "massive retaliation"
Nuclear Arms Race
Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)
Hydrogen bomb or
Thermonuclear weapon
Atomic Bomb
ICBM (Intercontinental ballistic missile)
Fission weapon
Fusion Weapon
Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution
Signed 14 May 1955, in Warsaw, Poland
Warsaw Pact
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops were killed.
Western socialists become disillusioned.

Opposition to Soviet Rule muted.
Cuban Missile Crisis - October–November 1962
Cuban Revolution and the Bay of Pigs Invasion
Fulgencio Batista
Cuban Revolution 1953-9
Eisenhower orders embargo.
John F. Kennedy, president 1961-3
Counter-revolutionary Bay of Pigs Invasion -- 1961
Cuban Missile Crisis
American first strike capability
Orders missiles moved 1962
American reconnaissance photos - 1962
US Blockade of Cuba
Crisis ends.
1. US to remove missiles
in southern Italy and Turkey.
2. USSR removes them from Cuba.
Third world re-alignment
Third World strategies
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
-established 1961, lead by India
Egypt, Ghana and Yugoslavia
New Power groups -- Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
-established 1960, lead by Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela
Cold War meddling, revolutions and dictatorships
Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavī (ruled 1941-79)
-made dictator by US backed coup d'état in 1953
-US oil companies control oil supply
Augusto Pinochet
ruled 1974-90
Vietnam War (1945–1976)
First Indochina War (1945-54)
France vs. Communist-backed rebels (Việt Minh)
Vietnam War (Second Indochina War) 1955-75
-North invades South 1959
-US backs the south, USSR backs north
-March 1965, 3,500 U.S. Marines were dispatched to South Vietnam
Lyndon Johnson 1963-9
Social unrest and anti-war protests
Kent State shootings 1970
End of Vietnam War
Fall of Saigon - 1975
Sino-Soviet split (1960–1989)
Cultural Revolution (1966–76)
Purging of all capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese Society
Red Guard Youth
Cult of Personality
Sino-Soviet border conflict - 1969
Chairman Mao and U.S President Richard Nixon, met in China, in 1972
Soviet war in Afghanistan 1979-88
Afghan Mujahideen meets with President Reagan
Gorbachev reforms - 1987-90
Perestroika ( "restructuring")
glasnost ("openness")
Mikhail Gorbachev
Improved US-Soviet relations
The end of the Soviet Union and Cold War
Soviet alliances break apart
Strikes hit Poland, 1989
Soviet Union dissolves - December 25, 1991
Consequences of Cold War??
Augusto Pinochet - conservative dictator
est. 500,000 killed
160,000 Allied soldiers
Japan losses - 100,000 men
Allied losses - 65,000 men
Full transcript