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FA16_News Writing and Broadcast Journalism

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by

Nicole Cox

on 1 April 2018

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Transcript of FA16_News Writing and Broadcast Journalism

Advantages of using sound:
1.) Sound has become easy to produce
2.) Sound can take a story beyond text
3.) Audio gives source(s) a “voice”
4.) Sound allows audiences to “see” with their mind
5.) Allows the audience to multitask
6.) Capabilities for creating and receiving audio journalism are all around us

Writers using audio must also consider sequence, tone, and ambience.
* Sequence= the order in which sounds are presented...

* Tone= how people sound...

* Ambience= context in which sound occurred...


Different Types of Stories...
• - Voicer
• - Voice-over
• - A sound bite (or actuality)
• - "Wrap-around” or “wrap”

Ethics of Editing Audio (a few):
• Always get permission

• Remove sounds an interviewee makes that do not present information

• Don’t edit out single words

• Don’t misrepresent the questions being answered

• Do not insert sounds that create a false impression…

• Avoid “butt cuts”

• Don’t coach the interviewee, and don't interrupt them, either.


News selection:
...The medium often dictates the message...
Dramatic Unity=
• Climax= gives the listener the point of the story…tells what happened.
.....Think about the
who, when, and what.

• Cause= tells why it happened.
.....Think about the
why and how.

• Effect= explains the outcome of effect of the story subject...helps the audience draw conclusions.

Broadcast stories are written as complete circles...nothing can be cut.
Different Formats for TV Newscasts:
• Reader
• Voice-over
• Voice-over to sound bite
• Package
• Live shots

Criticism of broadcast news...
Broadcast, Newswriting, and Broadcast Journalism
Must learn basics of news writing, before we can branch out into broadcast news writing.
The Inverted Pyramid
= concentrates the most interesting and important information at the top of the story, so audience members can quickly get the information they need.
Two reasons to use the inverted pyramid...
If we place the most weight on what comes first in the story, that means that your lead is the most important part of any news story.


Lead usually addresses who, what, when, and where….(how and how many, if time permits)



Different types of leads:
1. Straight lead
2. Summary lead
3. Blind lead
4. Direct address
5. Question Lead
6. Hard lead
7. Soft lead
All good news stories are marked by a unifying theme.
A central theme can also help writers weed through the information and select what is most important.
Broadcast journalism is fundamentally different from print in that it delivers information with both immediacy and impact.
-Impact
-Timeliness
-Information, not explanation

Criticism of broadcast news
Seven News Values
1. Impact
2. Timeliness
3. Prominence
4. Proximity
5. Bizarreness
6. Conflict
7. Currency
Everything we include must be necessary, and we must include everything that is necessary.
CONTENT
Broadcast Content
Structure= how you arrange content
Person or example
Broadens to explain the bigger picture
Return to the original
person or example
Diamond Structure
More specifically:

Context
Explanation
Effect
CONTEXT=
Begins with a hook or a headline... gives the lead of the story.
Broadcast leads are short and give the listener the basic information of the story....

....leads can be catchy or entertaining, but its job is to make the listener stop and listen to the story.
Explanation=
Includes more detailed information…elaborates on what was introduced in the lead.
Effect=
wraps up with the effects of the events, looking to the future or the impact of the event.
Broadcast Writing Style
* Always write in present or future tense for the lead
Example:
(Bad, Past tense): A murderer was executed today after spending years in prison.

(Good, Present tense): A murderer dies after years in prison.

* Introduce unfamiliar people before using their names
Example:
upset customer Janice Walters
accountant Fred Rivers

* Avoid tongue-twisters that can be difficult for people to read on-air
Example:
(Bad): “the player’s black plastic pants”


* Use action verbs
Example:
(Bad): Artist Macklemore moved up in the charts

(Good): Artist Macklemore soars to the top of the charts

* Use quotes sparingly; Paraphrase when possible

* Put attribution at the beginning of a quote
Example:
(Bad): The brain-eating amoeba detected in Louisiana drinking water is a serious health threat to residents, according to scientists.

(Good): Scientists say that the brain-eating amoeba detected in Louisiana drinking water is a serious health threat to residents.



*•When direct quotes are used in broadcast writing, they are set off from the rest of the copy not by quotation marks, but by ellipses.
Example:
The President said…I will not support the proposed changes to the bill…The defense secretary added that he expects the bill to get voted out before it goes any further.

* Avoid long introductory clauses
Example:
(Bad): While doing a routine maintenance check at the school, a plumber found the defect.

(Good): A plumber found the defect while doing a routine maintenance check at the school

*• Avoid separating subjects and verbs
Example:
(Bad): Sarah Smith, co-founder of the Little League group, will resign on Tuesday following an investigation of her financial practices.

(Good): Co-founder of the Little League group will resign on Tuesday following an investigation of her financial practices. Sarah Smith…
* Avoid negatives
Example:
(Bad): Investigators could find no motive for murder.

(Good): Investigators say the motive for murder is unknown.

* Use numerals for phone numbers and years
Example: 229-259-5520, 1965

* Keep statistics to a minimum; Break them down into smaller numbers
Example:
(Bad): 75 percent of residents disagree with the recent legislation

(Good): Three out of four residents disagree with the recent legislation


* Put titles before names and keep them short
Example:
(Bad): Jeb Bush, former governor of Florida

(Good): Former Florida Governor Jeb Bush

* Use people’s names as they are commonly cited
Example:
(Bad): President William Clinton

(Good): President Bill Clinton

*•Use the full name on first reference, and then last name for every reference after that

* Write out single digit numbers, and use numerals for two- and three- digit numbers. Use words for thousand, million, billion, etc. Write out numbers between zero and nine; use numerals for numbers 10-999.

Example:
(Bad): twelve people
(Good): 12 people

(Bad): one-hundred people
(Good): 100 people

(Bad): 1000 people
(Good): One thousand people

* Round off numbers
Example:
(Bad): a budget of one million—865 thousand dollars

(Good): a budget of nearly two million dollars

*• Write out amounts for dollar, cents, percents, and fractions
Example:
Three-fourths of residents oppose the bill.
The cost of milk increased to four dollars and seventy-five cents.
Scientists say that ten percent of the population will be affected by the flu this fall.

* •Write out roman numerals
Example:
(Bad): Richard Simmons III
(Good): Richard Simmons the third



* Avoid acronyms on first reference, unless it’s an organization that is known by its initials
Example:
(Bad): NSLS

(Good): National Society of Leadership and Success

* Use hyphens to show that it should be read as an acronym
Example:
(Bad): FBI

(Good): F-B-I
(Good): FEMA
Writing for broadcast journalism
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