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India Jigsaw Home Team B
Transcript of India Jigsaw Home Team B
There are six main nations in India: Pakistan in the northwest, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.
The Ganges and Indus Rivers are fertile river valleys that are good for farming.
Monsoons are strong winds that blow in one direction in winter and the other way in summer. They bring floods that are good for farmers' crops.
Harappa and Mahenjo-Daro were two main city-states in early India.
Each city-state contained around 35,000 people and had brick houses, watchtowers, and many streets.
They grew rice, wheat, barely, peas, and cotton. Artisans made tools and jewelry, which were traded. Buddhism by Logan Johnson Hinduism by Gavin Hudson
The consequences of how a person lives is called karma.
A Hindu who lives a good life and do their duty, they will have good karma.
Karma will move them closer to Brahman in their next life. Society in Ancient India by Sophia Hooper Society in ancient India was based upon a caste system. This system was invented by the Aryans, a light-skinned people, supposedly to keep them separate from the dark-skinned natives and in control of them.
The classes go in this order, from top to bottom: Brahmins (high priests), Kshatriyas (warriors who ran the government and army), Vaisyas (commoners), Sudras (laborers and servants who had few rights), and Pariahs (Untouchables)
It was considered unhealthy to even be around Pariahs, who cleaned the sewers and were dirt-poor.
Though the caste system is illegal today, the mindset is still the same.
In ancient India, boys from high-society families were taught for 12 years by a guru, or teacher.
Young people would marry in their teens, but preferably after they were done with schooling.
90% of Indian marriages were/are arranged. A "love marriage" is a Western idea and a fairly new concept.
When men from important families died, the body was set on fire and the man's wife would jump into the flames and kill herself. If she did not, she would be shunned. India's Early Empires by Maxwell Liem 4.3 India’s First Empires
Main Idea- The Mauryan Dynasty built India’s first great empire.
•The Mauryan Dynasty's founder was Chandragupta Maurya.
•The capital of the Mauryan Dynasty was Pataliputra.
•After Chandragupta spent time on the battlefield he turned to a life that was peaceful and simple.
•Asoka is considered the greatest emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty. He had an all-powerful military.
•Asoka founded hospitals and supplied medicine for the people of India.
•After Asoka died in 232 B.C. the empire became unstable due to the bad kings. They demanded heavy taxes and seized peasants’ crops for themselves.
•Things were so bad that in 283 B.C. the last Mauryan ruler was killed by one of his own generals.
The Gupta Empire
•Main Idea-The Gupta Empire reunited much of northern India and became wealthy through trade.
•For 500 years India had no strong rulers.
•Small kingdoms fought with one another and made life miserable for their subjects.
•In 320 A.D. one prince, named Chandragupta (a new one) from the Ganges river valley grew more powerful than the other rulers.
•When Chandragupta died his son Samudragupta made the Gupta Empire very powerful.
•Salt, cloth, and iron were common goods traded in India.
•Indian merchants also traded with China, with kingdoms in Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean.
•The Gupta rulers became very wealthy. They owned large estates and gold and silver mines.
•Hinduism was the main religion in the Gupta Empire.
•Pilgrims gave money to the Buddhist shrines in India.
•The Gupta Empire is considered the “Golden Age” of India. The rulers supported the arts and learning. Indian Literature/Science by Jad Mukssood India is known for high academic achievement. They created plastic surgery, created the number "0" and the infinity symbol, and also the decimal system.
India is recognized as the founder and creator of math. They had many influences in math as well including "0", the infinity symbol, the decimal system and all kinds of complex algebra. The first recorded math is in the Vedas.
The Vedas were prayers and teachings written down in books. The writing was done in a language called Sanskrit. Before Sanskrit the Vedas were told by mouth until they could be written down. Sanskrit is a complex language of shapes and figures.
Indian medical and science was very advanced for the time period. The Indians invented plastic surgery. They also did dental work and removed tonsils and other organs if necessary (amputations). The Indian Social Pyramid The Aryans by Karina Hernandez Buddhism was founded by Prince Siddartha Guatama. He was born in 563 BC. He was very wealthy. One day he left his kingdom and discovered suffering. He wanted to end suffering so he searched and meditated and finally found the answer. To make pain and suffering go away you must give up all fame, money, and worldly desires.
Nirvana- the state of wisdom when a person gives up all worldly desires. The word nirvana means "blowing out the candle." The Four Noble Truths The heart of the Buddha's teaching is the Four Noble Truths.
1. Life is full of suffering.
2.People suffer because they desire worldly things.
3. Suffering can end.
4. The way to end suffering is to follow The Eightfold Paths. The Eightfold Paths 1. Know and understand the Four Noble Truths.
2.Give up worldly things and don't harm others.
3. Tell the truth, don't gossip, and don't speak badly of others.
4. Don't commit evil acts like killing, stealing, or living an unclean life.
5. Do rewarding work.
6. Work for good and oppose evil.
7. Make sure your mind keeps your senses under control.
8.Practice meditation as a way of understanding reality. Buddhism Split into Two Groups Thervada- means teaching of elders. They believe that Buddha was a teacher, not a god.
Mahayana- Buddha is a god who came to save people.
These people thought that the Eighfold Paths were too hard to follow so instead they worshipped the Buddha to follow the Eight Fold Paths in Heaven. Main Idea-for the Indian civilization, new ideas and technology were developed.
The Harappan civilization collapsed around 1500 B.C. Historians believe that the city was damaged by earthquakes and floods from the Indus River.
The Aryans settled a few years later after the Indus River changed its course.
The Aryans came from Central Asia.
They herded animals. They weren't an ethnic group nor a religion.
Historians believe that the Aryans belonged to a bigger group called the Indo-Europeans.
The Indo-Europeans all spoke similar languages. Some migrated to India or Iran, others went west to Europe.
Cattle was a prized possession because it provided meat, milk, and butter.
Cattle was even used as money.
Being wealthy wasn't the amount of money you had--it was the amount of cattle you owned.
The Aryans were expert horse riders and hunters, and also good warriors.
The Aryans used metal-tipped spears and wooden chariots to invade other villages for food.
Around 2000 B.C., the Aryans left their territories and started leaving in groups.
Some groups crossed through the mountain passes in the Himalayas. They had entered the Indus River Valley in 1500 B.C.
Their civilization had spread out to all of India, except the Southern tip.
When the Aryans got to India, they became farmers. They continued to raise cattle.
They invented iron plows and slowly turned the Ganges River Valley into good farmland.
Some of the crops they had were supported by the climate. In the North, farmers grew wheat,barley, and millet. In the South, there was a mix of crops such as pepper, ginger, and cinnamon.
The Aryans developed the written language of Sanskrit.
They organized themselves into tribes. Each was led by a raja, or prince.
The rajas ran their own small kingdoms. This lead to fighting. They fought over cattle, treasure, and kidnapped women. This lasted for about a thousand years--from 1500 B.C. to 400 B.C. Who Were the Aryans? The Aryans bring Change How did Hinduism begin? Gods and Goddesses Today, Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world.
Hinduism has thousands of gods and goddesses.
In Hinduism there are three main gods; Brahma is the creator of the world, Vishnu is the preserver of the world, and Siva is the destroyer of the world. Hinduism began about 4000 years ago in India.
It was the religion of an ancient people known as the Aryans--“noble people”--whose philosophy, religion, and customs are recorded in the their sacred texts called the Vedas. Beliefs in Hinduism
Hindus believe that after a person dies that they are not joined immediately with Brahman.
A person must pass through many lives.
Passing through many lives to reach Brahman is called reincarnation.
Dharma, or duty, is the divine law and the code of behavior. Dharma means, "right conduct or behavior." Karma The Buddha Infinity Thanks for Watching! Karina, Logan, Aidan, Jad,
Maxwell, Gavin, and Sophia