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Sucessful Listening Strategies

This virtual object comprises an overview of effective strategies to teach Listening. It includes the conclusions drawn after the planning and implementation of a Listening lesson in two completely different settings in Colombia

Luis Noriega D

on 15 June 2013

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Transcript of Sucessful Listening Strategies

A Classroom implementation report.
Effective Listening Strategies:
What is Listening?
As stated by Vandergrift (2002), Listening is an invisible mental process, making it difficult to describe. Rost, (2002) defines listening, in its broadest sense, as a process of receiving what the speaker actually says (receptive orientation); constructing and representing meaning (constructive orientation); negotiating meaning with the speaker and responding (collaborative orientation); and, creating meaning through involvement, imagination and empathy (transformative orientation). Listening is a complex, active process of interpretation in which listeners match what they hear with what they already know.
Metacognitive Strategies!
Metacognitive strategies are management techniques employed by learners to have control over their learning through planning, monitoring, evaluating, and modifying (Rubin. 1987).
Some Resources!
How to structure an EFL listening class. In this 6 minute video, Louisa from Global English takes us through the basics from pre-listening tasks, the listening itself and post-listening tasks.
Cognitive Strategies!
Cognitive strategies are problem-solving techniques that learners use to handle the learning tasks and facilitate the acquisition of knowledge or skill (Derry & Murphy, 1986).
Socio-affective Strategies!
Listening Strategies!
Some researchers have noticed that certain L2 learners are able to understand oral English texts better than other L2 learners. Research has been conducted with L2 learners, examining the learning or listening strategies that they use when they listen to oral English texts.

Many researchers, including Goh (1998), and Vandergrift (2002) have indicated in their research that strategy use is important and helps L2 learners better understand oral English texts.

O’Malley and Chamot (1989) categorize strategies into two groups: cognitive, metacognitive. However, a third category, socio-affective, was recently added.
Stella Lequerica
Luis Fdo. Noriega

, e.g., deciding how many times to view a particular segment, whether to view it with the sound on or off, determining how to break up the segment into manageable portions.
Defining goals
, e.g., deciding what exactly to listen for, determining how much needs to be understood.
, e.g., assessing one's comprehension, identifying sources of difficulty, isolating problematic portions.
, e .g., assessing the effectiveness of strategies used.
Two broad types of cognitive strategies have been the subject of L2 listening research:
bottom- up
. Bottom-up strategies include word-for- word translation, adjusting the rate of speech, repeating the oral text, and focusing on prosodic features of the text. Top-down strategies, on the other hand, include predicting, inferencing, elaborating and visualization.
Predicting content
based on visual clues, background knowledge, genre of the segment information from the clip/audio itself, logic of the story line, actions, and relationships.
Listening to the known,
e .g., cognates, familiar or partially familiar words and phrases.
Listening for redundancies
, e .g., repeated words and phrases.
Listening to tone of voice and intonation.
, e.g., jotting down words and phrases o find out what they mean or searching for background information.
This category encompasses the attempts to create and promote positive emotional reactions and attitudes towards language learning (Chamot & O’Malley, 1987).
Questioning for clarification
e.g. Eliciting from a teacher or peer additional explanation, rephrasing, examples or verification.
e.g. Working together with peers to solve a problem, pool information, check a learning task, or get feedback on oral or written performance.
e.g. Reducing anxiety by using mental techniques that make one feel competent to do the learning task.
This virtual object comprises an overview of effective strategies to teach Listening. It includes the conclusions drawn after the planning and implementation of a Listening lesson in two completely different settings in Colombia (Universidad de la Sabana – Chia – Cundinamarca/ I.E. La Pradera – Monteria – Cordoba).

It is intended to illustrate the most effective listening strategies that, in view of the authors, can be used for teaching Listening organized in three broad categories: Metacognitives, Cognitives and Socioaffective.

Assertions and points of view are consistently supported with up-to-date bibliography and practical examples.

After you finish going through the presentation, you will be better acquainted with a range of appropriate procedures and techniques to teach Listening.
This is a Classroom Project designed for the Reflective Teaching and Learning in Context course of the Master in English Language Teaching for Self-Directed Learning at Universidad de la Sabana - Colombia.
Some useful resources are suggested to keep on expanding our knowledge on this interesting topic. We really hope you enjoy it!!!
A framework for planning a listening skills lesson: http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/a-framework-planning-a-listening-skills-lesson
Oxford, R.L. (1990b). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Chamot, A. U., & O’Malley, J. M. (1987). The cognitive academic language learning approach: A bridge to the mainstream. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 227-249. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3586733

Derry, S. J., & Murphy, D. A. (1986). Designing systems that train learning ability: From theory to practice. Review of Educational Research, 56, 1-39. doi: 10.3102/00346543056001001

Goh, C. (1998). How ESL learners with different listening abilities use comprehension strategies and tactics. Language Teaching Research, 2, 124-147. Retrieved from http://www.arnoldpublishers.com/journals/pages/lan%5Ftea/13621688.htm

O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Listening comprehension strategies in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 29, 331-341. doi: 10.1093/applin/10.4.418

Rost, M. (2001). Listening. In Ronald Carter, and David Nunan (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages (pp. 7-13). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rubin, J., (1987). Learner strategies: Theoretical assumptions, research history and typology. In Wenden. L & Rubin, J. (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 15-30). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Vandergrift, L., 2002. Listening: Theory and Practice in Modern Foreign Language Competence. Available at:.http://www.llas.ac.uk/resources/goodpractice.aspx?resourceid=67
After planning and implementing our Listening lesson the most effective strategies of this type were:
After planning and implementing our Listening lesson the most effective strategies of this type were:
After planning and implementing our Listening lesson the most effective strategies of this type were:
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