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Graves Disease

Biology 4U Culminating

Jess Ritchie

on 29 November 2012

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Transcript of Graves Disease

Hormonal Disorder Graves Disease What is the Disease and What Causes It? Graves Disease is an auto immune disorder that affects the productivity of the thyroid gland.
The thyroid is usually run by hormone release from the pituitary gland, but a person with Graves' produces a hormone called Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody (TRAb) which mimics and overrides the normal hormones. The pituitary does not receive the signal to inhibit production of thryroid stimulating hormones therefore altering thyroid function. Graves disease is most common in woman over 20. Signs and Symptoms Bulging eyes
Thick red skin on top of feet and shins Anxiety
Difficulty Sleeping
Fine tremors of the hand
Irregular heartbeat
Increased sweating
Sensitivity to heat
Weight Loss
Enlargement of thryoid gland
Erectile Disfunction
Frequent Bowel movements or diharea Treatments The idea when treating a patient with Graves is to inhibit production of TRAb. This can be done in several ways:

Radioactive Iodine Treatment- radioactive iodine taken orally to destroy the overactive thyroid cells. This treatment becomes less effective when Anti Thyroid Medication is used previously.

Anti-Thyroid Medication- interferes with the use of iodine by the thyroid gland. Anti-Thyroid medication blocks the production of thyroid hormones.

Beta Blockers- block the effect that hormones have on the body, but let hormones move around freely. These beta blockers do not affect the thyroid and do not cure the disease, their role is to limit the symptoms of the patient.

Surgery- If all of the above options are uneffective, the thyroid will be required to be surgically removed. Jess Ritchie -Graves Ophthalmopathy -Graves Dermopathy Hormones and Glands Involved Graves disease affects the thyroid gland, located in the throat
just below the larynx. The hormones involved in Graves disease are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which are produced by the thyroid gland. T3 is the active hormone, affecting tissues directly. These hormones affect brain development, heart rate, metabolism, nervous system functions, menstural functions and muscle strength. Normal Feedback Mechanism of the Thyroid The thyroid gland creates a negative feedback loop. In a normal negative feedback loop the hypothalamus releases TRH (Thyroid Releasing Hormone) to the pituitary gland, which releases TSH (Thyroid stimulating Hormone) which travels to the Thyroid gland. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are released from the thyriod into the bloodstream to help regulate heart rate, metabolism, brain development ect.. This raises the blood levels, which signals the pituitary and hypothalamus to inhibit the production of TRH and TSH. Bibliography endocrineweb.com
uptodate.com Graves disease was discovered by Dr. Robert Graves (1796-1853) The Mayo Clinic has dedicated over 100 years to the study of Graves Disease, with special emphasis on Graves Ophthalmopathy. The Thyroid Core Group of researchers is composed of top notch scientists, lab researchers and related field specialists. This group analyzes all functions of the Thyroid and has a thorough background knowledge of the gland.
A 2001 study shows that cigarette smokers have a success rate of over 60% for quitting while on antithyroid medication.
Research has found that the use of antithyroid drugs is not required and is sometimes counter effective when given before radioactive iodine treatments.
These same researchers discovered that using 'cold' iodine (non radioactive) is very safe and effective when the patient has not been treated with antithyroid drugs previously. When antithyroid drugs had been present, the risk of failure doubled! Graves Disease is the over production of the thyroid hormones, which means that the pituitary gland continues to release FSH to the thyroid thus making more T3 and T4 at an unyielding rate. This overproduction is referred to as hyperthyroidism. How Disease Interrupts Feedback Mechanism Support Groups There are many outreach programs available for Graves Disease patients to interact with others, answer questions and create deeper understanding of the disease. I Have Graves Disease (www.experienceproject.com/groups/Have-Graves-Disease/87036)
Daily Strength (www.dailystrength.org/c/Graves-Disease/support-group
Graves- MD Junction (www.mdjunction.com/graves-disease)
Even Facebook has its own community of people who share their experiences with Graves Disease!! Graves Ophthalmopathy Graves Dermopathy Discovery and Research Glossary Autoimmune- Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts as self, which allows an immune response against its own cells and tissues. Any disease that results from such an aberrant immune response is termed an autoimmune disease

Pituitary Gland- The major endocrine gland. A pea-sized body attached to the base of the brain, the pituitary is important in controlling growth and development and the functioning of the other endocrine glands

Hormone- A regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action

Radioactive Iodine- A radioactive form of iodine, often used for imaging tests or as a treatment for thyroid cancer and certain other cancers. For imaging tests, the patient takes a small dose of radioactive iodine that collects in thyroid cells and certain kinds of tumors and can be detected by a scanner

Larynx- The hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals; the voice box
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