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Transcript of CyberCrime
Greg Ge Cybercrime What is cybercrime? The Computer as a “Target”
Attacking other persons computer by using Virus or By Cracking the program.
The Computer as a “Weapon”
Using a computer to commit crime that we see in the physical world.
The Computer as an “Accessory”Store illegal or stolen information to computer Types of Cybercrime:
Using software like...
Winny, Share, Cabos, etc.
Documents (Comics, Books)
Difference in law between countries
Switzerland (Swiss), it is legal to download movies and music for private use.
Hacking and Cracking
Hacking – Good and bad. Requires high skills.
Cracking – Bad. Requires less skills.
Many people think Hacking = bad Types of Cybercrime:
Domestic Burger King Twitter Solutions and Effectiveness
of Solutions Individual Solutions Antivirus And Anti spyware Software: computer programs that attempt to identify, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software
Firewalls: protects a computer network from unauthorized access.
Cryptography: the science of encrypting and decrypting information.
Cyber Ethics and Laws: responsibility of every individual to follow cyber ethics and cyber laws so cybercrimes will go down Solutions within businesses Computer access control—passwords, compartmentalization, biometrics, automatic log off, random personal information checks
Physical solutions—written policy and security rules, better supervision
Computer solutions—virus protection, encryption of data Denial of service attack
Floods the band width of the victim’s network.
Anybody has access to it including children.
Anybody can upload and download.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
Much easier to contact each other in good way and bad way.
Location Jeep Twitter It is much harder to find the suspect.
why? Types of Cybercrime:
International China vs US
There is no reliable source to prove who attacked who.
China also states they are getting attacked by someone.
Iran vs US
Attacking the bank, company, etc.
Unknown vs US High technology allowed both military and terrorist to attack each other easier and faster.
Terrorist could crack military's server and use it in bad way.
Military could hack terrorist’s computer also.
Whoever wins the Cyber war, wins the actual war. Military vs. Terrorist Technological problems Technological tools are not enough to combat transborder cybercrime problems
Ex: “Love Bug” email virus
Philippine Reonel Ramones not prosecuted $7 billion US Regional Solutions Many regional initiatives
Advantage: Often comparable legal systems
Regional agreements can supplement international agreements Regional/National Solutions Can regional and national solutions work?
The internet has no borders and boundaries, so international solutions are necessary
International dimension requires harmonization to effectively fight Cybercrime Need for harmonization Technical aspect: Investigations depend on international cooperation of investigation authorities
Legal aspect: Principle of National Sovereignty limits the possibilities of transnational investigations without international cooperation Cybercrime convention 1997-2001, Council of Europe
Chapter I: defines relevant terms
Chapter II: measures to be taken at the national level
Chapter III: international cooperation
Chapter IV: the final provisions.
Requires Parties to criminalize and establish the procedural tools necessary to investigate such crimes under their own national laws Criminal Activities (Chapter II) Illegal access to the whole or any part of the computer system
Data interference—damaging, deletion, deterioration, alteration or suppression of computer data
System Interference—serious hindering of the functioning of a computer system Computer-related forgery and fraud
Infringement of copyrights and related rights
Attempt on aiding and abetting
Offenses contained in the Convention must be committed “intentionally” for criminal liability to apply.
Determination of mens rea (guilty mind) is left to the member parties to interpret individually Convention includes “powers to preserve data, to search and seize, to collect traffic data and to intercept communications.”
Convention only refers to parties who are parties to the previously-signed treaties (human rights); non-parties to these treaties are not bound by this requirement.
Nations would have to cooperate with other nations in sharing electronic evidence across borders.
24 hour, 7 day per week basis in order to ensure the provision of immediate assistance Corporate liability provision Lack of supervision undertaking of criminal activity for the corporation’s benefit
Clause imposes obligations on corporations to monitor employee Internet usage
Makes companies pay closer attention to their employee’s computer habits / employee surveillance in the workplace. A global cyberpolice Have powers in cross-border sphere to investigate cybercrime
May have gone to far
Will empower investigators to eavesdrop on network communications, to store intercepted data and confiscate the computers of suspected users.
Imposes a duty on signatories to do Carnivore-like snooping on domestic internet users at the request of a foreign government
Program developed by the FBI to give the agency access to the online/e-mail activities of suspected criminals
Capable of collecting more info than law enforcement is legally authorized to acquire.
Incorrectly configured, Carnivore can record any traffic it monitors and is subject to intentional abuse as well. Internet Service Providers (ISP) Economic and technical burdens
Required to comply with legal process from other signatory countries, regardless of the laws of the country in which they reside.
Fear subpoenas for computer data Convention and the Individual Individual suspected of involvement in cybercrime mounted surveillance and data gathering
= deprivation of citizen’s rights
Legal in one country, not in another
Supra-national investigation allows abuses of legal processes by facilitating the storing of information in jurisdictions where protection of individual right is weakest
Ex: Romania Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) Implements Justice Department's national strategies
Works with other government agencies, the private sector, academic institutions, etc
Works to improve the domestic and international infrastructure to pursue criminals most effectively.
Intellectual Property (IP)—a principal U.S. economic engine
US is target of choice Advent of Cybercrime The explosion of computer usage in the 1970’s
Electronic Mail Cybercrime Types in History Early forms of cybercrime
1970’s- Phone Hacking
Phone lines were hacked to make free calls
International wire and phone fraud rises
1980’s- Computer Hacking emerges
Formation of hacking groups, hacking tips magazines
1986- United States passes Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
1990’s- Birth of the Internet
Rise in internet usage sees massive increase in cyber crimes
Hacking goes international with creation of hacker websites
Financial information theft
Credit Card accounts, Identity theft, Fraud
Software bugs and security loopholes Early Forms of Cybercrime continued Content-Related
Easily accessible worldwide
Videotapes and DVDs go viral
Video viewing websites
Hateful material displayed across the internet Cybercrime in Recent History Copyright & Trademark Related Software Piracy
1998- Hackers penetrated unclassified Pentagon computers
Stole information and software programs
Growth of software companies
Hacking of company’s information systems 2007- TJ Maxx security breach 45 million credit and debit card users at risk
2010- Google, Adobe Systems, Yahoo hit by cyber attack
Malware attacks from countries
2010- Stuxnet Developed by United States and Israel Used to attack Iranian nuclear facilities
International Community Involvement “A hacker needs no passport, and passes no checkpoints.” - Former Attorney General Janet Reno Background Info Third Interpol Symposium 1979
Calls attention to the development of computer fraud
1981, Interpol begins training cyber investigators
1998, G-8 creates High-Tech sub group under the group known as –Senior Experts on Transnational Organized Crime
2007, UN Secretary General presents a global cyber security agenda
Calls for international cybercrime legislation
Creates high level experts group
Some of the groups recommendations are taken up by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Background Info There are many national laws, and international agreements but few governing norms of cyber space
The first, and to this day, the most important international Agreement in terms of cybercrime is the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime Jurisdiction Jurisdiction Jurisdiction “It is futile to have laws restricting certain kinds of information if their provisions can be easily circumvented by moving information to a jurisdiction with more lenient rules.”
– Professor Edward M. Wise Jurisdiction Jurisdiction Jurisdiction This is has lead the U.S. to take an Objective Territorial approach to cybercrime
If it affects the U.S. it falls under U.S. jurisdiction
But what about that Europe Council Convention thing?
Ratified by 39 nations (apart from Canada, Japan, and the U.S. most nations are European)
10 signatories who have not ratified
(China and Russia are way too cool for this) Convention on Cybercrime:
Section 22 Jurisdiction 1. Sets forth national cybercrime laws
2. Permits a nation to disregard the jurisdiction of another nation
3. Requires said country to then prosecute
4. Expands jurisdiction base in that it provides “that this convention does not exclude jurisdiction exercised in accordance with domestic law”
5. Mandates that conflicting parties consult each other with a view towards determining the most appropriate jurisdiction, but does not mandate a resolution Problems with International Agreements on Cybercrime No universal definition for what constitutes a Cybercrime
Is it civil or criminal?
How will you locate the perpetrators?
Does an agreement violate a nations domestic laws or constitution?
And remember the law moves slower than technology
How harmful is it? (some say $100 billion some say $1 trillion, some even say cybercrime has decreased sense 2004!) Cyber Warfare 1999 U.S. government websites are attacked by PRC in response to the inadvertent bombing of a Chinese embassy in Belgrade
2005 U.S. begins developing the Stuxnet virus
2008 Russia conducts a cyber attack on Georgia’s command, control, and communications systems
2009 USDD establishes Cyber Command (CyberCom)
2011 U.S. inteligence agencies name China as “Aggressive and capable collectors of sensitive U.S. economic information and technologies, particularly in cyberspace.” China and
Cyber Warfare China (and many other nations) have an unwillingness to enforce cybercrime laws
Many nations only have a handful of laws - simply forbid the use of computers in crime
PRC is regarded as the most active state in cyber warfare
Many fear that the PRC has developed its cyber warfare capabilities in the hopes of destabilizing ASEAN countries in order to gain regional power
“China must recognize the problem, investigate it, and join in a dialogue.” – National Security Adviser Tom Donnilon U.S. Cyber Warfare US confirms that it undertakes defensive and offensive operations in cyber space
USDD and NSA have been pushing to militarize cyberspace – detractors state that NSA has been over stating the security risk
USDD refers to the application of cyberspace as Computer Network Operations (CNO)
Computer Network Defense CND
Computer Network Attacks CAN
Computer Network Exploit CNE
(PLA has similar security outline)
DOD is spending $500 bilion on cyber security improvement
The pentagon plans to deploy over 100 cyber teams by 2015 Cyber Warfare? Cyber power – the ability of states to use cyberspace to create advantages, and influence events in all the operational environments and across the instruments of power
12 of the worlds 15 largest military powers are currently building cyber warfare programs
Hacktivist attacks are predicted to fall as companies and governments continue to improve their cyber security
Some hypothesis that we are close to direct casualties from cyber warfare
Russia and China have shown little interest in infrastructure attacks ( Iran and North Korea have not proved capable of such attacks….yet) In 2005, among 7818 businesses
67% detected at least one cybercrime.
Nearly 60% detected one or more types of cyber attack.
11% detected cyber theft.
24% detected other computer security incidents.
Most businesses did not report cyber attacks to law enforcement authorities.
The majority of victimized businesses (86%) detected multiple incidents, with half of these (43%) detecting 10 or more incidents during the year.
Approximately 68% of the victims of cyber theft sustained monetary loss of $10,000 or more. By comparison, 34% of the businesses detecting cyber attacks and 31% of businesses detecting other computer security incidents lost more than $10,000.
System downtime lasted between 1 and 24 hours for half of the businesses and more than 24 hours for a third of businesses detecting cyber attacks or other computer security incidents. Cyber Crimes in China Describe (1) Network crime categories implemented on the computer: crime of illegal invasion computer information system; Destroying computer information system crime. Forms are: the attack site; Online spread of computer viruses.
(2) the use of computer network to implement the following crime categories: using a computer to implement financial fraud; Using the computer to implement a theft; Using the computer to implement corruption and embezzlement; Using a computer to steal state secrets; Using the computer to implement other crime: electronic blackmail; Online smuggling; Illegal online trade; Electronic erotic services, false advertising; Online money laundering; Online fraud; Electronic theft; On-line damage to goodwill; Online insult, slander; Internet infringement of business secret; Online organizing cult; Online spy; Online spying on, providing state secrets crime
characteristics of network crime Feature1
No attacks on large enterprises and government agencies hacker crime; To attack ordinary household users.
The hackers are mostly the victim's friends and colleagues, and students. These people commit crimes learn more about the victims
characteristics of network crime Feature 3
1. Hackers to steal someone else virtual property through network virus. Generally do not need to go through the stolen people's program, in the back door, fast, and can transregional infection, the detection time longer.
2 users to deceive. Generally refers to, to be stolen by way of trust before obtaining property data from a real person or network to get to know, through online dating. Slow, However cracked slower.
characteristics of network crime Example 1 Tencent is biggest internet system Chinese used.
QQ = Skype + MSN
characteristics of network crime Friend web = Facebook
All pages are the same company; not good for
user. they will lost all information
characteristics of network crime Example 2
Anyone can be traded, the network security risks
characteristics of network crime Crime subject refers to the implementation of anti-social behaviour, in accordance with the law shall bear criminal responsibility of the natural person and unit. The author thinks that the network crime is general subject, can be either a natural person, also can be a legal person. From the point of the manifestation of cyber crime, crime main body diversity, people of all ages, all kinds of professional can commit Internet crime. For network crime main body must, in general, have a certain computer professional knowledge level of the offender, but can't think of computer professional knowledge is special subject. According to our country criminal law educational world of claims to the passage, the so-called special capacity of main body, is refers to the criminal law stipulated the perpetrators of criminal responsibility of the offender's qualification, status or personal aspects. Will usually have specific duties, engaged in a particular business, with a particular position, and has specific personal relations as a special subject. Although China will have a computer professional knowledge awarded the engineer's title, issue a variety of computer level certificate and so on, but from the point of the case of cyber crime, there are quite a number of levels without certificate or title. At the same time, should see in today's computer or network, the so-called people with computer professional knowledge of the requirements will be more and more high, cyber crime will become more common, with such standard computer professional knowledge is not exact. In addition, the development of the network for enterprises to develop e-commerce has brought new vitality, the enterprise as a legal person in order to compete for new market space, as a legal person as the main body of the network crime also should come as no surprise.
characteristics of network crime The cybercrime gradually Contact and other countries. Crime Internationalization
2012 Asian 4 countries cybercrime