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3.1 The Hierarchy of Structure in Animals

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on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of 3.1 The Hierarchy of Structure in Animals

Tissues
There are four major types of tissue in animals
Epithelial tissue
Connective tissue
Muscle tissue
Nerve tissue
3.1 The Hierarchy of Structure in Animals
Hierarchy
All animals are made up of cells that are organized in a way that allows them to perform all of life's functions
Within every animal there are levels of organization that form a hierarchy. The hierarchy is organized with
most complex items at the top
least complex items at the bottom
Hierarchy of a white tailed deer
Simplest to most complex
a muscle cell in a deer's heart is the simplest level of organization
each heart muscle cell is branched to other heart muscle cells. The collective muscle cells make up the muscle tissue
in addition to muscle tissue, other types of heart tissue such as nerve tissue and connective tissue make up the heart
the heart, blood vessels, and blood are all parts of the circulatory system
other organs and organ systems make up the deer
Organ Systems
All animals accomplish the same basic functions regardless of their appearance, behavior, or where they live

They all obtain oxygen and nutrients, and eliminate waste as well as sensing and responding to their environment, grow and repair damage, and reproduce

These are all functions of the organ systems
Organs
Each organ system is made up of highly specialized organs and other structures

These organs and structures work together to perform the overall function of the system
Overview
Multicellular
organisms, such as animals, are made up of many different specialized types of cells
each cell is specialized to perform a specific function
specialized cells depend on each other for survival
A single bone cell, hair cell, or stomach cell would die quickly if separated from its surrounding cells
These cells live and work together as part of a much larger group of cells that make up the body of an animal
The complexity of animal bodies varies. Some animals have a simple body structure, while others are more complex
Single-celled
organisms, such as bacteria and blue-green algae, function independenty
do not depend directly on other cells
Levels of Organization
Simplest to complex
Cell - the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism
Tissue - a collection of similar cells that perform a particular but limited, function
Organ - a structure composed of different tissues working together for perform a complex body function
Organ system - a system of one or more organs and structures that work together to perform a major vital body function such as digestion or respiration
Organism - the product of many different organ systems working together
Musculoskeletal system
supports the body and makes movement possible
Respiratory System
takes oxygen from the air and removes carbon dioxide from the body
Nervous System
sends messages around the body
Reproductive System
produces eggs (in females)
produces sperm (in males)
Circulatory System
transports substances around the body
delivers oxygen to the rest of the body
Digestive System
breaks down the food you eat
makes it available to be used by the body as a source of energy
Urinary System
excretes waste
regulates the amount of water in the body
Most organs work within a single organ system.
For example, the stomach is part of the digestive system and of no other system
Some organs, however, play a role in more than one system.
For example, the pancreas is part of the digestive and endocrine system
Digestion system is made up of many organs including
stomach
small and large intestine
liver
pancreas
Epithelial Tissue
a thin sheet of tightly packed cells that cover body surfaces and lines internal organs and body cavities
Connective Tissue
a specialized tissue that provides support and protection for various parts of the body
Muscle Tissue
a group of specialized tissues containing proteins that can contract and enable the body to move
Nerve Tissue
specialized tissue that conducts electrical signals from one part of the body to another
Full transcript