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EDF1616: Personal Physical Activity and Wellness Project

Tahlie Snehotta

Tahlie Snehotta

on 10 October 2014

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Transcript of EDF1616: Personal Physical Activity and Wellness Project

Personal Physical Activity
& Wellness Project

Process Goal
Process Goal
Process Goal
Process Goal
Process Goal
Physical Activity
& Recovery
Active Aerobics
Lifestyle/Everyday Activities
(cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr
(cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr
Muscular Strength
Sport & Recreational Activities
2-3 days a week
3-5 days a week
Source: Corbin & Welk (2011) Page: 90
Better Health Channel (2011). Physical Activity- Setting yourself goals. Retrieved From: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Physical_activity_set_yourself_goals
Brug, J., Ferreira, I.,Oenema, A. (2005). International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions, 2 (2), 1-7. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-2-2
Bulger, D., DeVellis, B., Glasgow, R., Kok, G., Latham, G., Meertens R., Seijts, H. G., Strecher, V. (1995). Health Education Sage Journals. Goal Setting as a Strategy for Health Behaviour Change, 22 (2), 190-200. doi: 10.1177/109019819502200207
Carnes, D. (2010). Behavior Changes & Goal Setting. Retrieved From: http://www.livestrong.com/article/147793-behavior-changes-goal-setting/#ixzz286vqOicP [Accessed On: 23/09/2012]
Corbin & Welk (2011). Concepts of Fitness and Wellness, McGraw Hill: New York. [Section 1, Concept 2].
Corbin & Welk (2011). Concepts of Fitness and Wellness, McGraw Hill: New York. (Section 3, Concept 10).
Christie Y. Jeon., R. Peter Lokken., Frank B. Hu., and Rob M. van Dam (2007). American Diabetes Association. Physical Activity of Moderate Intensity and Risk of Type 2 diabetes. 30 (3). doi: 10.2337/dc06-1842
Fitness Mantra. (2007). S.M.A.R.T. Goal Setting For Fitness And Weight Management. Retrieved From: http://www.fitnessmantra.info/2007/09/13/smart-goal-setting-for-fitness-and-weight-management/ [Accessed On: 24/09/2012]
Harsch, C. (2010). What Are the Benefits of Good Flexibility?. Retrieved From: http://www.livestrong.com/article/332519-what-are-the-benefits-of-good-flexibility/ [Accessed On: 23/09/2012]
Morgan, W., (2007). Good Health: Benefits to Logging Fitness and Nutrition Information. Retrieved From: http://www.goodhealth.com/articles/2007/10/26/benefits_to_logging_fitness_and_nutrition_information [Accessed On: 24/09/2012]

United Nations Women (2011) What is baseline data and how is such data collected?. Retrieved From: http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/339-baseline-assessments-quantitative-and-qualitative.html [Accessed On: 23/09/2012]
Zimmerman, G., Olsen, C., Bosworth, M. (2000). American Academy of Family Physicians. A ‘Stage of Change’ Approach to Helping Patients Change Behavior. 61(5), 1409-1416. Retrieved From: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0301/p1409.html
I concluded that my Netball team does not encounter much flexibility and stretching at training and before the game, therefore one of my process goals is to:
Influencing my netball team (in particular my coach) to work on flexibility routines for at least 10 to 15 minutes to further reduce injuries and enhance player performance.
I am measuring the attainment of my process goal by conducting a survey at the end of the netball season to determine if individuals felt that they improved their overall fitness from incorporating more flexibility. I will also measure this goal through the use of the diary log and to evaluate if changing the stretching routine at netball has helped me achieve my overall product goal. A disadvantage of this goal is that it may be hard to get the entire team to participate in stretching mechanisms due to barriers such as weather, tiredness or not knowing how to stretch. Consequently the advantage of the goal is that the team may improve their overall injury and performance rate.







Overall the success of my process goals demonstrated that I didn’t encounter many barriers, if any barriers such as university of work commitments occurred I ensured that on the days planned I would incorporate exercise and flexibility to work around the barriers. I overcame my barriers particularly the ‘time’ barrier by planning more efficiently around work, personal and university commitments. Overall I felt that I had develop time planning skills more efficiently. At the beginning of the intervention I would say that I didn’t have enough time to incorporate flexibility, however I learnt how to juggle time around to benefit myself and the people around me. I felt that I tackled the flexibility intervention appropriately and to the best of my ability in terms of time management.
It was difficult to incorporate all stretches due to aches and pains particularly from skiing every second weekend, although I did acknowledge that in week 7 that the aches and pains after skiing were not as bad due to incorporating flexibility into my exercise routines. This was beneficial towards acknowledging that my intervention was helping my performance.

Although I came across unanticipated barriers such as football/netball functions and discovered that I was consuming more alcohol and going out more commonly on Saturday nights, this didn’t impact my flexibility and exercise routine.

Conversely, my product goal was not achieved. Being disappointed that I did not achieve this goal I am determined to continue my flexibility so I can reach this point and above to hopefully one day meet the termination stage of the stage of change model. Not meeting my product goal by 1cm wasn’t the worst outcome of the intervention as my process goals helped motivate me towards completing the intervention. Although I was disappointed and felt that I didn’t push myself hard enough in the last couple of weeks, I still felt satisfied with my achievements as I conquered the process goals.

Not reaching my product goal, I went back and evaluated the different types of stretching I did in the log, I further determined that if I had incorporated more hamstring and back stretches into my exercise I may have got that extra centimeter, however I am still proud of my overall success.
The determination of having a plan in front of me continuously made me feel like I should be doing exercise and flexibility, therefore on the days I felt too tired or felt that I didn’t have enough time, I worked around these barriers through motivation. Overall my motivation turned into a habit, and this habit will help me continue flexibility and stretching routines. The intervention and plan worked appropriately to help motivate me towards success, overall the intervention helped to improve my physical activity performance and made me feel physically, spiritually and mentally more healthier.

In conclusion, the intervention worked successfully in achieving my process goals, with all goals met I felt satisfied with my overall result, although I did not reach my product goal of 8cm, but throughout the duration of the intervention I worked hard towards improving my flexibility and was satisfied with my achievements. The intervention ran along smoothly with limited barriers to stop my intervention progressing. The behavior modification worked to my advantage providing me with overall improved health and wellness as well as an improved exercise performance. Not knowing the advantages of flexibility at the beginning of the intervention, I have worked through the planning model to help me successfully implement my behavior modification intervention.
Program Evaluation:
Recording my progress every 2 weeks:
Sit and Reach Test


Week 2 of Intervention: 27.3cm
Week 4 of Intervention: 29.1cm
Week 8 of Intervention: 32cm 
Week 6 of Intervention: 30.5cm

Overall Improvement of:


By monitoring my success over the 8-week period, I was able to determine any process goals that I had achieved as well as acknowledging my determination to successfully reach my product goal. Recording my progress allowed me to acknowledge that I had completed one of my process goals to improve my flexibility in the sit and reach test by 3 cm in the first 4 weeks, according to my recordings I improve by 4cm in the first 4 weeks therefore my success came along efficiently. By following the plan after the first 4 weeks (after the netball season) I began to incorporate the yoga application into my exercise routine, this worked on my spiritual health and wellness and furthermore made me feel relaxed and refreshed. I was determined to incorporate yoga once a week, and I successf
ully did.


Out of the 16 people whom answered the question, 12 agreed or strongly agreed that flexibility did benefit their overall health, majority of those who agreed had played netball for many years so they felt that stretching was a major advantage to their overall fitness performance. 2 out of the 3 that were unsure had injuries at the beginning of the season and therefore found it hard to participate.

The overall impact on the netball team that incorporating flexibility had is shown throughout this evaluation survey, personally I felt that incorporating flexibility helped me to work towards my product goal and allowed me to perform much more efficiently in netball matches and general exercise.
The FITT principles include; Frequency, this refers to how much exercise an individual can do; this can be acknowledged daily, weekly, monthly or yearly. An effective plan will incorporate the amount of days, weeks or months an individual will incorporate Physical Activity. Intensity varies from low (very low levels of physical activity) to moderate (low levels of physical activity) to vigorous (higher levels of physical activity). Time is the next principle; this determines how much a person wants to incorporate physical in terms of time, this can be from 1 minute to 24 hours per session. The final principle is type; this is what type of physical activity the individual or group wishes to incorporate; in this case I will be incorporating a minimum of 3 days a week (frequency), moderate intensity (flexibility, stretching and walking) and vigorous (jogging and bike riding- warm up activities), including 10-15 minutes a session (time) and flexibility (type) (Corbin & Welk , 2011).
Not stretching before going skiing increased my chances of developing aches, pains and tares. Therefore in the first couple of weeks (2 and 4) I slowed down in the warm ups and focused on stretching to help reduce my injuries and pain from skiing. Although this may not be seen as a barrier to flexibility, it was a barrier to my overall exercise performance.

Getting sick, I got ill in week 5, however I worked around this barrier to continue my flexibility routine.

Work commitments; my shifts can change, I may get a phone call 2 hours before I have to start a shift asking for me to replace somebody, therefore work commitments can become barriers as they can be unpredictable.

University commitments- having to work on assignments or attending group meetings

Family Commitments (personal life): I generally have to drive my brother places, do the shopping and cooking therefore this may be seen as a potential barrier.

Netball: bad weather conditions usually means no training/game.

Getting into the routine- it may be difficult to get out of my existing routine to incorporate flexibility.
My third process goal is:

To improve my flexibility by 3cm in the first 4 weeks of the intervention by measuring this goal through a sit and reach test.

I will be measuring the attainment of my process goal by measuring my progress every 2 weeks by conducting a sit and reach test that will be recorded and compared with previous weeks to acknowledge my success. Recording my exercise routine everyday will have overall benefits of a specific and detailed logbook to show my progress, however if I forget to record my routine the logbook may not be as sufficient.

Product Goal

According to the sit and reach test conducted,
I am below average in flexibility for my age group,

'My overall aim by the end of week 8 is to improve my flexibility by 8cm, this will be measured through the use of a sit and reach test to further improve my overall health and physical activity performance'.
I will be measuring the attainment of my Product goal by measuring my progress every 2 weeks by conducting a sit and reach test that will be recorded and compared with previous weeks to acknowledge my success. I will then have access to my progress at the end of the 8 weeks to evaluate my overall success. The benefits of having an overall goal is that it motivates me to continue my intervention as well as allowing me to acknowledge any change through recording my flexibility every 2 weeks(Morgan, 2007).
How to measure flexibility: I used the following measuring tools to help guide my goals and to help evaluate the success of my intervention.
Sit & Reach Test:
Fix a meter stick on top of a 30cm box so that 26 cm of the ruler extend over the front edge of the box toward the test subject. The 26-cm mark should be at the edge of the box.
Remove shoes and sit on the floor with your legs stretched out in front of you with knees straight and feet flat against the front end of the test box.
In a slow, steady movement, lean forward at the hips, keep you knees straight and slide your hand up the ruler as far as you can go.
Extend as far as you can, record the result in cm, rest and repeat three times.
Average your results for your final score.

Shoulder Flexibility Test
To test your left shoulder flexibility, stand and raise your right arm straight up overhead.
Bend your right elbow and let your right palm rest on the back of your neck and slide it down your back and between your shoulder blades.
Reach behind you with your left hand so the back of your hand rests on the middle of your back.
Now slide your right hand down and your left hand up to try to touch the fingers of both hands.
Measure the minimum distance between the fingertips of the right and left hand.
Record any overlap as well.
Switch your hands to perform the test on the opposite shoulder.
Shoulder Flexibility Test Results
Excellent = Fingers overlap
Good = Fingers touch
Average = Fingers are less than two inches apart
Poor = Fingers are more than two inches apart

After conducing the sit and reach test my results were very confronting, only being able to reach 25cm my results ended up in the below average category for adult women. This made me more determined to work on my flexibility. I determined an aim of where in the table I would like to be at the end of the 8 week intervention, and included this my product goal. The shoulder flexibility test demonstrated that I am in the “good” category, therefore I would like to improve to excellent, but my main focus is the sit and reach test to improve my back and hamstring flexibility.  
Measurement Tools

At the beginning of the course I acknowledged that I was in the Pre-contemplation stage, hence I did not think about changing my behavior in any shape or form. When told that I had to think about changing my behavior I went through a list of things that may need to be changed in my daily routine. Discovering that I exercise 3-5 times a week, eat healthy, participate in sporting clubs and get 10-11 hours sleep a night it was difficult to acknowledge that there were any problems with my health and wellness.
Where I Began…
Throughout the change process, theory was used to guide my personal behavior modifications. Theory refers to evidence and information that can be used as a base (or baseline data) for intervention planning (Brug et al., 2005). Furthermore the implementation of theory should improve the efficiency of behavior modification interventions to further change and develop positive behaviors towards physical activity, health and wellness (Brug et al., 2005). Numerous theories commonly used, provide the best information on what needs to be modified and how it can be changed in a group or individuals health and wellness (Brug et al., 2005), commonly the need for modification or change arises from poor characteristic of the dimensions of health in an individual’s life including; spiritual, physical, emotional, social and intellectual health (Corbin & Welk , 2011). In order to implement an intervention, theories can be followed such as the Stage of Change theory that is used throughout the report to guide my behavior modification intervention to success.
I further created a flexibility log entry to help evaluate my overall success of my intervention. I incorporated the flexibility exercises I encountered and recorded how often I did them in the particular week. For example in week 1 I did the Triceps Stretch three times in that week (demonstrated by the three ticks). This allowed me to acknowledge what type of flexibility exercise I did to further help evaluate my success. These are the main stretches I incorporated, although stretches from the yoga routine focused on my hamstring and back as well as my arms and calf's.
The plan incorporates the duration of exercise I am planning to do. Sticking to this plan may be hard, particularly after the netball season concludes in week 4 of my program implementation; therefore I had to create two diary logbooks to follow. Following this plan motivated me to continuously incorporate the plan into my daily life.
Furthermore I included a exercise log of what type of flexibility exercises I should do and how many days a week I did a particular stretch.
My Plan:
9th August 2012 to 10th September 2012
I further introduced Process Goals; these are small-scaled goals that can help an individual achieve goals along the behavior change journey and are seen as motivators to achieve the overall product goal (Better Health Channel , 2011). These goals are much smaller goals; therefore having four or five process goals allows an individual to feel like they are achieving something throughout the process.

Whilst analyzing the reflection diary I noticed that I usually conduct exercise an hour or less before I work, therefore I have a modifiable barrier that can be changed through creating a goal that I can work towards. Starting exercise about 15 minutes earlier than I normally do will enable me to spend some time on flexibility. From this information I concluded with my first process goal of:
Setting aside 3 days a week preferably Monday, Thursday and Saturday to conduct flexibility exercises for 10-15 minutes per session.

I will be measuring the attainment of the process goal by creating an exercise plan that I will follow for the 8 weeks to improve my flexibility. However, if I miss out on a day or cannot do flexibility 3 times a week due to potential barriers, I may not be able to achieve this goal. Consequently, the plan will be developed around the 2-week reflection diary, therefore I will make sure that the 3 days will be the most appropriate days where potential barriers are limited in interruption.
Process Goals
After analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of flexibility and continuously thinking about different stretching techniques, I further moved into the preparation stage. The preparation stage was acknowledged when I began to take initial steps towards change. Such steps included writing down my goals, barriers and researching stretching positions.

Through the use of theory, baseline data and measurement tools, I analyzed my 2-week diary reflection and formed goals. Theory demonstrates that goal setting is beneficial to behavior modification as setting specific goals leads to higher performance when compared to quantitative goals such as “do your best” and vague or no goals (Bulger et al., 2003). Furthermore goal setting is closely linked with motivation, writing down explicit goals that you can refer to regularly that are Specific (what the behavior change physical activity is e.g. flexibility), Measurable (how will you measure the success of your goals- e.g. sit and reach test), Attainable (attitudes and skills to reach the goal), Realistic (goals that are not too difficult nor to easy, therefore they have to fit in an individuals personal characteristics) and Time-based (how long will you have to achieve the goals e.g. 1 week to 5 years) (SMART) (Fitness Mantra, 2007) are linked to the determination of changing behavior towards physical activity and health (Carnes, 2010). Identifying what I may include in my goals, I wrote down a product goal, this is what I personally want to achieve overall at the end of the intervention.

To improve my product goal the SMART criteria will make my goal detailed and precise to allow me to understand exactly how and when I will achieve my overall goal.
I further gathered information to discover what the benefits of flexibility were to clarify reasons for why I should encounter regular flexibility into my daily routine exercise (Contemplation Stage) (Corbin & Welk , 2011). Through extensive research I concluded with a variety of different health benefits of flexibility from physical health to spiritual health and wellness. The main advantage of flexibility includes benefits in performance in sports and exercise as increasing flexibility reduces injuries (Harsch, 2010). Not only is flexibility important for reducing injuries, it is necessary for achieving and maintaining adequate posture to help reduce back pain (Corbin & Welk , 2011). Furthermore, flexibility can lengthen muscles to help an individual move more freely, open and calm to improve spiritual health and wellness (Harsch, 2010). Although flexibility and stretching have many advantages, stretching when muscles are cold can damage muscles and ligaments (Harsch, 2010). Additionally, biological factors can affect an individual’s flexibility such as age and gender (Corbin & Welk , 2011). Greater flexibility in females when compared to males is generally due to hormonal influences or anatomical differences, thus females at a younger age tend to be more flexible than males however the difference decreases in adult years (Corbin & Welk , 2011). Nevertheless measurement tools that has been developed as guidelines to demonstrate where individuals should be at in flexibility, and allows for different female and male scores.
Benefits of

The 2-week diary reflects my personal daily and weekly exercise routine and how/if I include stretching routines after exercise. After recording my daily routine I began to determine that I incorporate the bare minimum amount of flexibility that I should be undertaking. According to the Physical Activity Pyramid I should be incorporating 2-3 days of flexibility into my weekly exercise routine (Corbin & Welk , 2011).
Additionally the diary log allowed me to acknowledge that I struggle with time. I often leave exercise to last minute, usually just before I have to go to work; therefore I struggle to fit in an appropriate amount of time for flexibility. Consequently, when attending netball training I observed that throughout the training session of 1 and ½ hours that we did not incorporate enough stretching exercises, this is where I began to acknowledge that this could be a major cause of the high injury rate in our netball club and home injuries. Recognizing that I was in the Contemplation stage of the Stage of Change Model, I began to think about ways that I could change the problem.

The baseline information collected throughout my 2 week reflection diary allowed me to acknowledge the barriers I may have towards exercise and in particular flexibility, furthermore the reflection allowed me to develop my process and product goals that reflect my 2 week diary entries.
2 Week Diary Reflection
According to Brug et al (2005) the first step in health promotion is to identify the problem, however not being able to identify a personal need for my behavior modification, my personal results of a healthy questionnaire quiz conducted at University acknowledged that stretching and flexibility is a key health-related fitness aspect that I do not incorporate. Noticing that I easily develop aches, pains and tares in the muscles when I exercise, particularly when playing netball, the questionnaire brought my attention to the need of flexibility. The questionnaire further helped to change my behavior towards fitness, the questionnaire was a form of baseline data used to modify my behavior. Baseline data refers to data that is collected/conducted before a program or intervention begins and is used as a starting point to help progress towards goals and objectives as well as measuring or evaluating the progress of change at the end of the intervention (United Nations Women, 2011). As well as the questionnaire, a 2-week reflection on my daily exercise routine was observed to acknowledge if any flexibility is conducted before changing my behavior, this also contributed to my baseline data.
Self Assessment
Stage of Change Theory
The Stage of Change Theory is a theory based around behavior modification that identifies the steps that an individual or group may take in order to guide them to change. The 5 stages allow identification of what stage an individual or group may be at in there behavior modification to further allow them to understand and use information that will motivate them to progress throughout the stages. The five stages include; Pre-contemplation, at this stage there is no acknowledgment that there is a problem in a individuals behavior, therefore they believe that there is no need for change; secondly the contemplation stage is where an individual acknowledges that there is a problem with their behavior and thinks about how they could change it but they don’t necessarily change it; thirdly the preparation stage is when an individual is getting ready to change a behavior this can be done, for example by goal setting; the next stage involves action, this stage is when an individual will actual change their behavior by putting it into action, this is when an intervention can be implemented; the next stage involves Maintenance, this is when an individual has to maintain the behavior change over a period of time; and finally the last stage is termination, this only occurs after 5 or more years when a person has continuously continued there behavior change without relapses (Zimmerman et al, 2000).

This presentation focuses on a theory based behavior modification intervention that was implemented into my daily exercise routine for 8 weeks. The behavior modified is flexibility. Flexibility is a health-related physical fitness component that refers to the amount of motion that is possible at a given joint or series of joints; it is affected by muscle length, joint structure and other factors (Corbin & Welk , 2011). The reason for the choice of modifying flexibility is outlined throughout the presentation with the use of baseline data as well as the personal benefits that incorporating flexibility had on my personal exercise and development. The importance of health; ‘Optimal well being that contributes to one’s quality of life. It is more than freedom from diseases and illness, though freedom from disease is important to good health (Corbin & Welk , 2011)’ and wellness; ‘The integration of many different components (social, emotional/mental, spiritual and physical) that expand one’s potential to live and work effectively and to make a significant contribution to society (Corbin & Welk , 2011)’ are discussed and analyzed on how they relate to flexibility.

The Physical Activity Pyramid retrieved from Corbin & Welk (2011) describes the different levels of fitness and how often an individual should incorporate aspects of a particular fitness, the lower down the pyramid, the more an individual should conduct the activities. The activities higher in the pyramid require less frequency, thus the PA pyramid influenced my flexibility routine and when I will be incorporating flexibility into my exercise (Corbin & Welk , 2011). The pyramid demonstrates that flexibility is on the second level of the pyramid; therefore it should be incorporated into my exercise 2-3 days a week (Corbin & Welk , 2011). From this information I have further developed a plan for exercise and flexibility during the netball season and after the netball season. When planning my intervention I incorporated the FITT principles to create a fitness plan that will provide me with an overall flexibility result. Following the criteria allowed me to efficiently organize my plan to further enhance my flexibility capabilities.
Program Planning
Vigorous-Intensity: Requires a large amount of effort and usually encounters heavy breathing and an increase in heart rate >6 METs (Jeon et al, 2007).

Moderate-Intensity: Requires a moderate amount of effort 3-6 METs (Jeon et al, 2007).
2 Week Diary Reflection
A day before implementing the intervention I came across an application (App) for my IPhone that incorporated yoga routines (Simple Yoga) for 20,40 or 60 minutes minutes per session, from this I created an additional process goal of:
Incorporating yoga once a week for 20 minutes, by following the App to improve my flexibility and furthermore improve my spiritual health and wellness.
Flexibility is closely connected with Yoga, as yoga incorporates stretching exercises that not only reach an individuals physical flexibility, it also works with an individuals emotional, spiritual and mental health and wellness. Therefore Yoga will have a substantial benefit on my flexibility routine; consequently Yoga is apart of my flexibility routine and will be measured through the 2-week flexibility measurement log over the 8 weeks.
I spoke with the coach at the Mornington Football Netball Club and I discussed with her the importance of flexibility and stretching, furthermore she told me to find some stretches and flexibility routines to send to her, I further had the opportunity to set aside a minimum of 10 minutes after a warm up with the teams to go through stretching and flexibility. After the first 4 weeks of training and games, I evaluated the club to determine if they felt that incorporating more flexibility benefits them. Consequently once I began the intervention there were only 4 weeks left of the netball season therefore I didn’t have the full 8 weeks to assess the impact.

Evaluating Process Goal 2:
A question was asked to determine if the netball team felt that incorporating more flexibility had any benefit to their overall performance.

Question) Did you feel that incorporating flexibility/stretching enhanced your overall performance and made you feel less likely to develop small injuries?
Potential Barriers
By Tahlie Snehotta
Full transcript