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How to Design Bicycle and Pedestrian Friendly Intersections and Crossings

PSU Pedestrian and Bicycle Class
by

Jim Peters

on 27 October 2013

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Transcript of How to Design Bicycle and Pedestrian Friendly Intersections and Crossings

Unsignalized Crossings
What does the law say a driver must do at a crosswalk?
Good Bikeway Design
Principles Reduce Crashes
Left Cross
Five Most Common Car-Bike Crashes
Right Hook
Doored
Parking Lotted
The Overtaking
Visibility
of cyclists
of cycling
of expected behavior
Comfort
Safety
Attractiveness
Directness
Cohesive
70 percent of pedestrian fatalities occur
at midblock locations
Over of pedestrians die when hit by vehicles traveling >40 mph
Less than of pedestrians die when hit at 20 mph
80%
10%
Principles of Intersection
Design for Bicyclists
How to Design Bicycle and Pedestrian
Friendly Intersections and Crossings

Roundabouts
Intersection
Non-Intersection
Bike Lanes at Intersections
Bike Lane Width
Which would you prefer?
Add a lane shadowed by parking
Bike Signals
Cycle Tracks at Intersections
Make cyclists visible
Provide direct path close to motor vehicles
According to Oregon law, drivers must stop and remain stopped until pedestrians crossing the street clear the driver’s lane plus the lane before and the lane after the driver’s lane.
and remain
stopped
Always for any pedestrian crossing at corners or other crosswalks, even if the crosswalk is in the middle of the block, at corners with or without traffic lights, whether or not the crosswalks are marked by painted lines.
From California Driver Handbook
STOP
40 mph
85% death
15% injured
30 mph
45% death
50% injured
5% uninjured
20 mph
5% death
65% injured
30% uninjured
Pedestrian Injuries at Impact Speeds
Speed Kills!
How do we get motorists to stop?
crossing treatment
roadway width
speed
street environment
To determine the crossing treatment to use consider these factors
High-visibility / "active when present"
Rapid Flash Beacons
HAWK/Pedestrian hybrid beacon
compliance rate
70% to 95%
unmarked but signed crosswalk
Flashing beacons
How are bicycles detected?
weight
metal
flashing lights
pressure
magnetism
Common misconceptions
Actual
Bike detection at intersections uses:
inductive loops
video detection
Wire loop in the pavement
Bike detection sometimes using pushbuttons
Exclusive bike phase
Eliminate right turn on red
Bike Boxes
Highlight merge areas and assign priority
Provide priority for cyclists
Assist with turning movements
Prevent right-hooks
Clear the queue


Make cycling and cyclists
Make the pavement for behavior
Intersections
Avoid
Provide for cyclists close to that of motor vehicles
Bicyclists should be ; their movements should be
unusual conflicts
direct path
visible
predictable
Don't drop a lane in advance of an intersection
Drop lane and shift bike lane left of right turn lane
Wrong!
Don't put the bike lane on right side of turn lane
unless the movements can be separated in time
Add a lane
Notice the sidewalk rider
Is this bike lane comfortable?
How well does this treatment meet our principles?
assign priority?
comfortable?
cohesive?
predictable?
How about this?
And this?
Bike lane treatments should extend to the intersection
Looks like this
Add a right turn bike lane
Solutions for a right turn lane could look like these
Assign priority
Improve comfort
Assign priority
There could be other good options if we think outside the box
Four Uses of Bike Boxes
visible
communicate expectations
Bike Box Design Details
Left Turn Bike Box
Improves
comfort
Visibility
of cycling
Improve of cycling
Improve of expected behavior
Improve
visibility
comfort
visibility
Near side signal heads
How do we get motorists to stop?
Which one of these crossings would you
expect more motorists to stop at?
and remain
stopped
If we want drivers to
why do we use this sign?
And this one?
"Warning signs should be placed so they provide adequate perception-reaction time." 2009 MUTCD

That's 100 feet in advance up to 35 mph
So, why do we put a warning sign at the crosswalk?
Pedestrian Crossing Treatments
Marked crosswalk
High-visibility, "Active when present"
Red signal or beacon
Conventional traffic signal
Red signal or beacon
Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacons (RRFB)
pedestrian volume
vehicle volume
crossing distance
speed
environment
visibility
Marked crosswalks
30% to 75%
compliance rate
Will many motorists stop at this crossing?
In-roadway lights
Compliance rate drops to less than if beacons are always on.
40%
50% to 90%
compliance rate
Two-lane crossing is better for pedestrians
Will many motorists stop at this crossing?
Half signal
Traffic signal control
Source: Safety Effects of Marked vs. Unmarked
Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations,
FHWA, November 2000.
Results of FHWA research by Charles Zegeer
Notice the high crash rate at some marked crossings
Case Study
Posted Speed = 40mph
30 feet
10,000 cars per day
Posted speed = 40 mph
Approximately 15 pedestrians/bicylists use the crossing in the peak hours.
We expect these volumes will increase.
There is adequate sight distance to the crossing
C = Candidate site for marked crosswalks

P = Possible increase in pedestrian crash risk without other enhancements

N = Marked crosswalks alone are not recommended
Zegeer study suggests an enhanced crossing
NCHRP 562 suggests an active/enhanced crossing
What treatment would you recommend?
Why are some crossings unmarked?
Visibility
of cyclists
of cycling
of expected behavior
Comfort
Safety
Attractiveness
Directness
Cohesive
How do we get motorists to stop?
crossing treatment
roadway width
speed
street environment
Recap
Good Bikeway DesignPrinciples Reduce Crashes
To determine the crossing treatment to use consider these factors
pedestrian volume
vehicle volume
crossing distance
speed
environment
visibility
Name the principles of good bikeway design
How do we get motorists to stop?
Designing roundabouts for pedestrians
Keep crossings short

Provide adequate splitter island width (6 feet minimum)

Separate sidewalks from roadway

Provide good sight distance
Designing roundabouts for bicyclists
Bicylists may travel through the roundabout like other vehicles or like pedestrians
Think way outside the box -
wishful thinking
Essential Design Elements
Deep reservoir
Bright color
Prominent marking
Lead-in lane
Actual
Subjective
Social
3 Types of Safety
source: David Hembrow, A view from the cycle path
8/80 Rule
Ask yourself: Would you send an 8 year old along with an 80 year old on a walk, or a bike ride on that infrastructure? If you would, then it is safe enough, if you would not, then it is not safe enough.
8-80cities.org
Target Audience
Interested But Concerned
Design Principles
Notice the bike lane ends
G(min) + Y + R > or + 6 sec + (W+6ft)/14.7 ft/sec, where:

G(min) = Length of minimum green interval (sec)
Y = Length of yellow interval (sec)
R = Length of red clearance interval (sec)
W = Distance from limit line to far side of last conflicting lane (ft)
Normal Signal Phase Timing
Signal control
Notice the protected turns across the cycle track
Bikes use pedestrian signal
Bike Signal
Bike Box
Observe the yellow time
One more min green example
Sample minimum green calculation from Caltrans
Exclusive bike phase
Eliminate right turn on red
Bike Lanes
at Intersections

Bike Boxes
Design Guides
Common Design Constraints

Lane width
Shy distance
Fire access
Curb radii for trucks
Number of lanes
Parking
Trees
Right of way width
Bridge width
Maintenance
Common misconception that wide auto lanes are safer
Shy distance can
add to lane widths
Shy distance
Maintenance can push back on innovative treatments
Fire access requires 20 feet curb to curb width in many cities
Turning templates are used to determine curb radii
Parking, our precious parking
Protecting our street trees
Right of way lines
Bridges can constrain the network
63 Feet Wide
Cycle Tracks
Portland
Two-Way Cycle Track
10' Wide
Separated from parking
by 2' median
Pedestrian crosswalks
Bikeway crossing
Bike Signal
Graphic courtesy Fat Pencil Studio and URS
175 Right Turns at Madison Today
Protected Right Turn
From Driver Perspective
in the Through Lane
Bike Signal
Southbound Bicycle Crossing
Bike Signal too for consistency
Many intersections use a
leading bike interval
Graphic courtesy Fat Pencil Studio
Graphic courtesy Fat Pencil Studio
Seattle
Traffic Signals
Full transcript