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Applications of Chemical Equilibrium in Industrial Processes

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Hiba Ahmed

on 12 January 2013

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Transcript of Applications of Chemical Equilibrium in Industrial Processes

In Industrial Production... The Haber Process Production of Ammonia - Industrial Production used to produce compounds that can be harnessed and used in other applications.

-production must ALWAYS be ECONOMIC which means produces the most product EFFICIENTLY and SAFLEY

-By using Le Chatliers law maximum product is produced by creating an equilibrium shift to the right , so forward reaction is dominant . Steam-Methane Reforming. These days hydrogen is primarily made by reacting methane (natural gas) and water (steam), and the process is called steam-methane reforming. The haber process constitutes of many reactions one of which is : CH4(g) + H2O(g) = 3H2(g) + CO(g) (ΔH = +206 kJ mol-1) - This reaction is favoured by high temperature (endothermic, heat absorbing) and low pressure (2 gas moles ==> 4 gas moles).

-In practice a high temperature is indeed used, and combined with a catalyst, both factors will increase the rate of reaction to ensure the process is economic.

However, although a low pressure is advantageous, in practice a moderately high pressure is used, which effectively increases the concentration of the reactants and provides a greater bulk of material passing through the reactor in a given time.

Sometimes where a lower temperature is advantageous to create maximum product , it may be take too long because of slower reaction rate. In this case catylists are used to speed up process while still using a low temerature to maximize production. Uses of Carbon oxide Gas and Hydrogen through Steam Methane Reforming Meat Colouring
- carbon monoxide combines with myoglobin to form carboxymyoglobin, a bright-cherry-red pigment. Used to maintain reddish colour of meat Industrial Gas:
Carbon Monoxide is usually always produced to use as a reactant to produce other substances in bulk
ie : in production of Acetic Acid Nuclear Power Plants

- hydrogen gas harnessed used as energy source in nuclear power plants CH4(g) + H2O(g) 3H2(g) + CO(g) (ΔH = +206 kJ mol-1) - high pressure used , speeds up the reaction and it effectively increases the concentration of the gas molecules) and allows a greater bulk flow rate material through the reactor, but very high pressure means more dangerous and more costly engineering to address the health and safety issues involved.

-Carrying out the reaction at a low temperature,will favour max product but too slowly. Here catylist is used to get max product more quickly and efficientl Uses of Ammonia that's Harnessed during Haber Process Fertilizer
Ammonia used in fertilizer to maximize crop yield Cleaner
Household ammonia is a solution of NH3 in water (i.e., ammonium hydroxide) used as a general purpose cleaner for many surfaces. Because ammonia results in a relatively streak-free shine, one of its most common uses is to clean glass, porcelain and stainless steel. It is also frequently used for cleaning ovens and soaking items to loosen baked-on grime. Woodworking
Ammonia has been used to darken quartersawn white oak in Arts & Crafts and Mission-style furniture. Ammonia fumes react with the natural tannins in the wood and cause it to change colours Methanol Production From Synthesized Gas The production of methanol is produced by using other synthesized substances that were also made by industrial processes •CO(g) + 2H2(g) CH3OH(g) (ΔH = -90 kJ mol-1) •Theoretically the reaction is favoured by high pressure (3 gas mol ==> 1 gas mol) and low temperature.
•In practice a high pressure is used to give an acceptable yield in accordance with Le Chatelier's Principle, but a moderately high temperature plus a catalyst, are employed to get an economic production rate. Applications of Methanol Harnessed from
Synthesized Gas Feed Stock
The largest use of methanol by far is in making other chemicals. About 40% of methanol is converted to formaldehyde, and from there into products as diverse as plastics, plywood, paints, explosives, and permanent press textiles. Fuel for Vehicles
Methanol is used on a limited basis to fuel internal combustion engines. Applications of Chemcial Equilibrium in Industrial Production
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