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Copy of Canada's Climate

Grade 9 Geography Lesson
by

Wes Fenwick

on 23 March 2011

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Transcript of Copy of Canada's Climate

Climate What Is Climate? Climate is an area's average long-term weather
6 Main factors affect climate:
L-atitude
O-cean Currents
W-inds and Air Masses
E-levation (Altitude)
R-elief
Near Water Remember, L-O-W-E-R -Near Water! Latitude Canada is a geographically large country
Lowest ->Pelee Island, ON 41°N
Highest ->Alert, NU 83° N Generally, As latitude increases, temperatures decrease
As latitude decreases, temperatures increase Energy from sun also a significant factor Ocean Currents Temperature of an ocean current affects air above it
Warm current + air = Warm moist air

Ex. BC's climate = Warm, moist weather
Due to warm North Pacific Current heating air above it Pelee Island = Warm, moist-like climate

Alert = Bitterly cold, dry conditions British Isles' climate mild and wet
Warmer than expected at its latitude Air Masses Large Volume of air that takes on traits of climate of where it was formed
I.E. Northern arctic creates cold, dry air (Polar Fronts) Air moves from high to low pressure areas causing wind Major winds created by these areas are prevailing winds Westerlies are Canada's most powerful prevailing winds
Blows in west-east direction This front also causes frontal rainfall that effects most of Canada Jet stream high above polar front Fast moving west-east airflow Elevation Elevation is height of a location
Measured in metres above sea level This causes temperatures at higher elevations to be quite cool Air pressure lower at higher altitudes
Due to air expanding Water vapor in air condenses into clouds
Makes precipitation (rain/snow/hail) Some extreme examples are...
Deserts of Africa = scortching hot and dry
Canadian arctic = freezing cold and dry Mt. Everest = tallest mountain
Need oxygen tanks to breathe
Freezing cold temperatures Mt. Logan = Canada's tallest summit (in Rockies, BC)
Very similar climate to Everest Relief Created by coastal mountains Occurs when moist air rises up "windward" side of slope Air expands, cools, forms large water droplets, and falls on windward slope Since most water falls on the windward slope, "leeward" slope left relatively dry (Rain shadow) SIDE NOTE Convectional precipitation = another way we get rainfall
Caused by evaporation of water by sun
ex. Quick, violent showers during hot days Near Water Two types:
Continental Climate
Wide range of temperatures -> no body of water to moderate temps
Lower rain/snowfall Prarie Provinces Maritime climate
Areas near large lakes, oceans, seas, etc...
Small range in temperatures due to moderating effects of body of water
High levels of precipitation Ireland Great Lakes Odd situation; are far from oceans but are large enough to act like maritime region Best of both words...? sometimes called modified continental climate Regions Arctic
Elevation ->Low influence
Latitude -> Greatly influenced
Near water -> Somewhat influenced
Taiga
Elevation -> Somewhat Influenced
Latitude -> Somewhat Influenced
Body of water -> Low influence Cordilleran
Elevation -> Greatly influenced
Latitude -> Somewhat influenced
Body of water -> Greatly influenced
Pacific Maritime
Elevation -> Somewhat influenced
Latitude -> Low influence
Body of Water -> Greatly influenced Boreal
Elevation -> Low
Latitude -> Somewhat
Near Water -> Somewhat Prairie
Elevation -> Low influence
Latitude -> Somewhat influenced
Near Water -> Low influence Southeastern Elevation -> Somewhat influenced Latitude -> Somewhat influenced Near Water -> Greatly Influenced Atlantic Maritimes Elevation -> Somewhat Influenced Latitude -> Somewhat Influenced Near Water -> Greatly Influenced
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