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ASL 3050 Final Portfolio

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Lindsay Gomm

on 12 December 2012

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Transcript of ASL 3050 Final Portfolio

Part 2 PHONOLOGY the study of the distribution and patterning of speech sounds in a language and of the tacit rules governing pronunciation. Unit 3 Identifying Parts of Sign Assignment 1 3) What does each pair of signs have in common?
a. SUMMER/DRY: same handshape, same movement
b. RED/CUTE: same movement, same location
c. SHORT/TRAIN: same location (slightly twisted), same handshape, same movement
d. SIT/CHAIR: same location, same handshape (one hand) American Sign Language Linguistics Lindsay Gomm Unit 3
Assignment 1
Assignment 2 Unit 4
Assignment 3 Unit 6
Assignment 4 ASL has five basic parts, hand-shape, movement, location, orientation, and non-manual signals Tools for Writing ASL Notation Methods: Glossing
A gloss is an English word that expresses a specific sign Conventions Used for Glossing:
1: Signs are represented with small capital letters in English
2: Lexicalized fingerspelled words are written in small capitalized letters and are preceded by #
3: Full fingerspelling is represented by dashes between small capital letters
4: Non-manual signals and eye gaze can be represented on a line above the sign glosses or by placing the non-manual signal after brackets around the part of the sentence that co-occurs with the non-manual signal See Assignment 1 and 2 4) List four signs that must have a nonmanual signal with them.
1. NOT-YET (mouth open and tongue slightly out)
2. FINISHED (lips frotruded)
3. WH questions WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHY (furrowed eyebrows)
4. LARGE (CHA with mouth)
5. FAR (squint eyes, mouth open) 5) Look at "The Snowmobile" on the DVD. Gloss the first 90 seconds of the story. The first part is glossed here as an example.
______________________t head nod, eye blink
PRO-1 ONE STORY NEVER FORGET. HAPPEN PRO-1 ABOUT OLD TWELVE
PRO-1 poss FAMILY HAVE TWO HOUSE. ONE HOUSE NORTH #MICH THAT-AREA,
MOTHER-FATHER HOUSE, AUNT UNCLE HOUSE HOUSES-IN-A-ROW.
PRO-1 HAPPEN ONE TIME GROUP GO HIT-BY SNOW COLD WOW.
MY FATHER GATHER FAMILY INFORM L-A-K-E NEAR-BY THICK CAN S-N-O-W-M-O-B-I-L-E
MY BROTHER I NEVER. MY BROTHER I DEAF. FAMILY THAT-AREA HEARING.
BROTHER PRO-1 DRIVE. I APPROACH. brother: WANT RIDE? I YES. PRO-1 JUMP-ON-BACK.
PRO-1 RIDE IS CIRCLES. MY COUSIN HE WANT SNOWMOBILE. HE OLD-ABOUT FIVE. HE SIT -IN-FRONT.
BROTHER DRIVE ROUND-ROUND-IN-CIRCLES. ME *eyes closed holding on*.
HAPPEN BROTHER FAR-AREA. I HOLD ON. I SEE UN-LEVEL-GROUND ICE MAYBE. BROTHER DRIVE. I HOLD ON.
PRO-1 WRONG. GROUND-MOVE. SNOWMOBILE-SINKING. BROTHER JUMP OFF. LUCKY. SNOW MOBILE SKINK-IN-LAKE. LUCKY NOT-DEEPER-END. LUCKY. Assignment 2 1) Suppose you are the first linguistic to describe ASL signs and you have to describe the handshape in each of the following signs. Pick a name for each handshape.
Example: SHOE S-handshape
a. GIRL A-handshape
b. ELEVATOR E-handshape
c. SPAGHETTI G-handshape
d. AWKWARD 3-handshape
e. TRAVEL bent-V-handshape
f. PLAY Y-handshape
g. LECTURE 5-handshape
h. PREACH bent-5-handshape
i. PEOPLE P-handshape
j. GIVE flat-O-handshape
k. MATH M-handshape
l. PITY middle-finger-extended-5-handshape
m. MOTHER 5-handshape
n. ALWAYS 1-handshape
o. PLATE (dish) bent-L-handshape
p. LOBSTER 3-handshape
q. SHOULD 5-handshape
r. MARRY 5-handshape 2) Pick a name for the location (place where the sign is made) of each of the following signs.Example: KNOW facea. PLAY bodyb. NOT chinc. FEEL chestd. DOCTOR palm-side-wriste. FACE facef. YESTERDAY faceg. HOSPITAL arm(just under shoulder)h. TIME back-of-wristi. STRICT nosej. BROKE (no money) neckk. PUNISH elbowl. DUTY back-of-wrist 3) Pick a name for the movement in each of the signs listed below.
Example: HELP upward a. OPPRESS downwardb. BUSY side-to-side c. KEY,LOCK twistd. BOIL circulare. RELATED back-and-forthf. MAYBE up-and-downg. SELL shakeh. YES nodi. COFFEE circular-motion j. MISS (didn't see something) move-accross-face
k. TRAVEL move-away-from-bodyl. COMMUTE back-and-forth m. CLEAR expandng-handsn. APPROACH move-closer-togethero. DIVIDE move-apart p. DIE flipq. FASCINATING wiggle-fingers/close-fist/move away
r. CONTACT move-toward
4) Using the lables you have picked for handshape, location, and movement, describing the following signs.
a. CHILDREN two-hands, 5-handshape, neutral place, up-and-down/move apart
b. PLAY two-hands, Y-handshape, neutral place, twistc. TRAIN two-hands, H-handshape, neutral place/on top of other hand, back and forth d. UNDERSTAND S-handshape-to-1-handshape, top-part-of-head, expanding-index-fingere. DEAF 1-handshape, chin-to-ear, move-backf. GIVE bent-O-handshape, body, move-away-from-signer Unit 4 The Stokoe System William Stokoe designed the first system making it possible to describe signs. Before him, signs were thought of as "unanalyzable" There were symbols for placement of the sign in comparison to the the signers body (TAB), symbols for handshapes (DEZ), and symbols for the motion of the sign (SIG) See Assignment 3 Assignment 3 1) Using the Stokoe symbols for movement, location, and handshape, transcribe the following signs:
a. ENJOY : [ ] 5 @ [5]@
b. BEGIN : [ ] 5 G w [5Gw]
c. BROKE (no money) TT 5 (move toward signer) TT5(mts)
d. BUSY [ ] 55 z [55z]
e. SUNDAY [ ] 55 vv [5v5v]
f. EVERY SATURDAY [] A v [Av]
g. KNOW (forhead/upper brow) 5 x
h. NOT u(chin) A (movement away from signer)
**I am trying my best to show the signs on the handout you gave us, however... my computer does not have all of the symbols
Unit 6 The Liddell and Johnson Movement-Hold Model This was another way of writing ASL. "The basic claim abut the structure of signs in the Movement-Hold Model is that signs consist of hold segments and movement segments that are produced sequentially" Three symbols are used to represent movements and holds in a sign
M: movement
H: hold
X: this was introduced because Liddell and Johnson noticed differences in the length of hold segments. Some holds were shorter than others, thus X was introduced See Assignment 4 Assignment 4 1. Identify the segments in the following signs.
Example: WEEK X M H
a) FALSE: X M H
b) ALWAYS: X M X M X M H
c) EAT: X M H
d) COLOR: H
e) PAPER: X M X M X M H
f) SIT: X M H
g) CHAIR: X M X M X M H
h) CANT: X M H
i) INTERESTING: X M H
j) GOOD: H M Hk) HELP: H M H or X M X M H
l) BROKE (no money): X M H
m) PREACH: X M X M X M H
n) WEAK: X M X M X M H
o) ARRIVE: X M H
p) BRING: X M H
q) WRITE: X M X M X M H
r) KING: X M H
s) WERE: X M X M X M H
t) BLACK: X M H PART 3
Phonological Processes Movement Epenthesis The process of adding a movement segment. Sometimes a movement segment is added between the segments of two signs Hold Reduction Shortens holds between movements when signs occur in sequence Metathesis The process of segments of a sign changing place Assimilation A segment takes the characteristic of another segment near it, usually the segment just before or just after it. Weak Hand Deletion Sometimes the weak hand or passive hand is not used in a two-hand sign Unit 10
Assignment 5 Unit 11
Assignment 6 Unit 12
Assignment 7 Unit 13
Assignment 8 Unit 10 Deriving Nouns from Verbs Nouns and verbs in ASL were first analyzed by Ted Supalla and Elissa Newport They focused on movement and depicted the differences between noun movement and verb movement. Nouns and verbs may have the same handshape, orientation and location but the noun may simply repeat the movement of the verb See Assignment 5 Assignment 5 1. On the DVD, "The Snowmobile" (Val Cively) and "Applause for Eyes to See" (Bernard Bragg) both have examples of nouns that have related verbs in ASL and verbs that have related nouns. Find one example of each, as follows:
a) Noun in a story: NAME (Applause for Eyes to See)
b) Related ASL verb (may not be on the DVD): CALL
c) Verb in a story: SIT (Applause for Eyes to See)
d) Related ASL noun (may not be on the DVD): CHAIR 2. List three examples of noun-verb pairs not included in this unit.
a) NICECLEAN
b) GARDENGROW
c) VACUUMEUSE-VACUUME 3. Which of the following sets are noun-verb pairs in ASL and which have unrelated signs for the noun and the verb?a) PUT-IN-JAILJAIL-unrelated signsb) PUT-ON-EARRINGEARRING-unrelated signs
c) SHOOT-GUNGUN-noun-verb pair
d) MAIL-LETTERLETTER-unrelated signs
e) DRIVE-CARCAR-noun-verb pair Unit 11 Signs Having Parts Lexicalized: "Like a word" See Assignment 6 Assignment 6 1) For each of the English translations of ASL compounds listed below, write down the two signs that come together to form the compound and describe the changes that happen when the two signs come together.
a. "believe" : THINKMARRY
X M HX M H
contacting hold rule:HX M H
single sequence rule:HX M H
weak hand anticipation rule:add weak hand 5 handshape
movement epenthesis:H MX M H
hold reduction:X MM H b. "wife" : GIRL MARRY X M H X M H contacting hold rule: H X M H single sequence rule: H X M Hweak hand anticipation rule: add weak hand 5 handshapemovement epenthesis: H M X M H
hold reduction: X M M H c. "husband" :BOYTHINK
X M HX M H
contacting hold rule:HX M H
single sequence rule:HX M H
weak hand anticipation rule:add weak hand 5 handshape
movement epenthesis:H MX M H
hold reduction:X MM H d. "home" : X M H
contacting hold rule: H
single sequence rule: H
weak hand anticipation rule: weak hand is not used
movement epenthesis: H M
hold reduction: X M e. "Bible" :JESUS BOOK X M HX M H
contacting hold rule:HX M H
single sequence rule:HX M H
weak hand anticipation rule:add weak hand 5 handshape
movement epenthesis:H MX M H
hold reduction:X MM H f. "resemble" :LOOKSTRONG M HH M H
contacting hold rule:HX M H
single sequence rule:HX M H
weak hand anticipation rule:weak hand not used
movement epenthesis:H MX M H
hold reduction:X MM H g. "mention" : SAYNAME (tap once) X M HX M X M X M H
contacting hold rule:HX M H
single sequence rule:HX M H
weak hand anticipation rule:add weak hand H handshape
movement epenthesis:H MX M H
hold reduction:X MM H 2) List at least four other compounds in which the first sign is either THINK or MIND.
a. THINK-JUDGE -------> decide
b. THINK-SELF ----------> think for yourself
c. THINK-SAME ----------> agree
d. THINK-TOUCH -----------> be obsessed with
3) Watch "The Snowmobile" on the DVD. Find three compounds used in the story. Write down which two signs form each compound and it's English translation.
a. OLD-12 ------> 12 years old
b. BOY-SAME ------> brother
c. THINK-JUDGE -------> decide Unit 12 Fingerspelling Assignment 7 2. Look at the PAH! stories on the DVD and find four examples of lexicalized fingerspelling. Explain what changes have taken place in terms of the eight changes discussed in this unit: deletion/addition, location, handshape, movement, orientation, reduplication, second hand, and grammatical information. Remember that lexicalized fingerspelling is represented with the pound sign (#): #BANK.
1) #NO : reduplication
2) #OFF: movement, deletion
3) #HARD OF HEARING : grammatical information
4) #PHYSICAL EDUCATION : grammatical information Fingerspelling is the American Sign Language representation of written English Lexicalized Fingerspelling You may have noticed that separate signs in a fingerspelled word tend to blend together. This seems to create new a new combined sign. Some signs may be deleted entirely. Location and handshape may also change Movement is sometimes added See Assignment 7 Compounds Sometimes in language you can take two words/sings (free morphemes) and put them together Unit 13 Numeral Incorporation Assignment 9 1. Think about and briefly describe how youwould sign the following signs.
EX: TIME: Touch passive wrist with active index finger, then move active hand back and forth in neutral space with handshape appropriate to time; 1-10, fine; seems to change for 11 and 12.
b) FIRST, SECOND, THIRD PLACE : palm oreintation out, active hand making 1, 2, or 3 handshape, location is in the torso, active hand moves changing the palm orientation facing the signer.
d) PERIOD OF TIME (e.g. 6-9 PM) : Touch passive wrist with active index finger, then move active hand back and forth in neutral space with 6-handshape active handshape changes to 1-handshape, draws short line to the right, active hand shanges to 9-handshape.
e) DOLLAR AMOUNT (e.g. $1, $2) : active hand makes (1, 2, 3, etc)-handshape, location is in neutral space, palm orientation is away from signer, active hand moves so palm orientation changes towards the signer.
f) NUMBERS ON A SHIRT : active hand makes handshape of appropriate number, the location of the sign depends on where the numbers are located on the shirt that is being described. Bound morphemes are meaningful units that cannot occur alone but can be combined to create new meanings. As an example, If we use the sign WEEK and change the handshape from a 1 to a 2 or 3, we change the meaning of the sign from one week to two or three weeks. Numeral Incorporation occurs because the location, orientation, and nonmanual signals remain the same but the number handshape changes, changing the meaning of the sign. See Assignment 8 2. "The Snowmobile" on the DVD contaions three examples of signs involving numbers. Answer the following about these signs.
a) The three signs are: 12, 1, 7
b) What area do the signs refer to (for example; age, time, etc.)?:
TWELVE YEARS OLD
ONE DAY
SEVEN YEARD OLD c) Are the signs examples of numeral incorporation?: yes Part 4 Syntax the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language Unit 19
Assignment 9 Unit 18
Assignment 12 Unit 16
Assignment 14 Unit 15
Assignment 15 Unit 19 Verbs Plain Verbs: are signed in a static location that cannot be changed without changing the meaning of the verb Indicating Verbs: these verbs move toward specific people or objects and incorporate additional information Depicting Verbs: have the ability to convey two types of information with movement added to the sign See Assignment 9 Assignment 9 1. Watch the stories "Tobacco" and "Oklahoma City Bombing" on DVD. Find six examples of plain verbs.
1) WRITING
2) CHEWING TOBACCO
3) SHOW-WHAT-IN-MOUTH
4) PUT-TOBACCO-IN-MOUTH
5) OPEN-WINDOW
6) HEARD 2. Find six examples of indicating verbs from the same from the stories. Provide and English translation of the sentences each verb appears in.
1) WRITING (different from other one) - "My teacher was writing on the blackboard."
2) SPIT OUT - "I spit my tobacco out the open window"
3) LOOKING-AROUND - "The students were looking around at each other"
4) SHOW-ME - "The teacher asked all the student to show what was in their mouth"
5) LOOK-AT-STUDENTS - "The teacher turned his head quickly and looked at the students"
6) ENTER-THE-ROOM - "Dr. Bill entered the room" Unit 18 Time and Aspect Time and Tense: talking about thing that have happened in the past or will happen in the future Expressing Time in ASL: ASL has many ways of expressing time. Many ASL time-related signs can be described as an imaginary line that passes perpendicular to the signer's body. Temporal Aspect: Aspect is information in a predicate that informs us as to how an action is done. In ASL, the aspect is relayed in predicates which are either verbs or adjectives. See Assignment 12 Assignment 12 In the ASL PAH! stories on the DVD, you will find several examples of verbs with aspect inflections. Identify these verbs and state the meaning of their aspectual inflections.
ADD ++ SELF ESTEEM - learning about how Deaf can be successful and becoming a part of the Deaf community built up her self esteem.
TAKE ADVANTAGE ALL I COULD LEARN - eager to learn all he could about Deaf culture
FOCUS - emphesise how focused he was on learning more about Deaf culture.
DIFFERENT -emphesise how different hearing and deaf culture is
Unit 16 Lexical Categories Nouns: persons, places, or things Verbs: actions, events, processes, and state of being Adjectives: descriptive nouns Adverbs: sings that are used to express manner, indicate temporal frequency, or modify adjectives or other adverbs Open Lexical Categories Closed Lexical Categories Pronouns: A person, place or thing that has already been identified. Modal Verbs: verbs like: WILL, CAN, SHOULD that express necessity or possibility. Prepositions: show relationships between nouns, pronouns, or predictors. See Assignment 14 Conjunctions: join words or phrases of the same category Assignment 14 Watch the Kansas and Louisiana conversations on the DVD. Gloss two sentences from each conversation and explain how you know that they are sentences. For example, what is it about signs and the non-manual features that tells you where a sentence begins and ends?
Kansas Conversation
WAS SHE DEAF OR HEARING? - You can tell this was a sentence because the person was asking a very short question about the person in the story for clarification.
IT WAS RAINING ALL NIGHT AND THERE WAS LOUD THUNDER. I COULNT HEAR IT BUT I COULD FEEL IT. WOW. -She was commenting on what another person said and then another person commented.
ON HER BIRTHDAY EVERYONE GATHERED TO THEIR HOUSE. - there was a pause after he said this before he continued with the story.
MY WIFE AND I DIDNT GO BECAUSE WE HAD THE TIMES MIXED UP. - his facial expressions showed that this was the end of the sentence. Unit 15 Basic Sentence Types Yes or No Questions: when asking a yes or no question in ASL, to indicate the question, eyebrows are raised. Wh- Questions: when asking a who, what, when, where, or why question in ASL, eyebrows are lowered to indicate. Rhetorical Questions: in order to ask a rhetorical question in ASL, the signer will ask the question and also state the answer. S e e A s s i g n m e n t 15 Negation: is the process of changing an affirmative sentence into a negative sentence. Commands: in ASL, commands are made by different imperatives than in English. ASL has particular nonmanual signals like making direct eye contact and possibly frowning. Topicalization: to draw emphasis, information is expressed at the beginning of a sentence. Conditionals: can be used with signs like #IF or SUPPOSE, but can also be used by nonmanual signals like tilting ones head. Declaratives: statements that convey referential information. In ASL these sentences do not seem to be marked by a nonmanual signal. Assignment 15 Watch the Kansas and Louisiana conversations and the "Brotherhood", and "House" stories on the DVD and see how many sentence typs you can identify. You should be able to find examples of declaratives, topicalization, negations, and questions. Gloss one example of each.
Declarative: I GREW UP DEAF.
Topicalization: IT RAINED ALL NIGHT AND THERE WAS LOUD THUNDER, I COULDNT HEAR IT BUT I COULD FEEL IT!
Negation: CANT LIVE IN HOUSE, CANT.
Question: WAS SHE DEAF OR HEARING? Part 5 Semantics Unit 21
Assignment 16 Unit 22
Assignment 17 Unit 21 The Meaning of Individual Signs Determining Meaning: meaning is determined by specific communities of users. The same handshapes, locations, orientations, nonmanual signals, and movements may mean different things in different places. Referential Meaning: is the idea, topic or state of affairs conveyed by the sign or sentence Social Meaning: signs or sentences may provide information about the social identity of the signer. Affective Meaning: gives information about the signers feelings. Denotation and Connotation: referential meaning of a sign is referred to as denotation while connotation is the social and affective meaning of the sign. See Assignment 16 Hyponymy: a term that denotes a subcategory of a more general class. Example: green is a color. Part/Whole Relationships: can be explained that a hand could be thought of as part of an arm but an arm is not a hand. Synonymy: a synonym describes two signs that mean the same thing. Antonymy: is two signs that mean the opposite. Converseness: is simmilar to antonys, but they relate to each other. For example: If A is the husband of B, then B is the wife of A. Metaphor: a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance, as in “A mighty fortress is our God.” Assignment 16 Find examples of ASL signs that illustrate the difference between denotation and connotation.
Denotation: refers to the literal meaning of a word, the "dictionary definition."
FOOD - something you put in your mouth to digest and make into energy.
CHILD - someone who is young
Connotation: refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings.
EAT - the process of putting food into your mouth in order to digest and convert into energy.
CHILD - brat or immature. Unit 22 The Meaning of Sentences See Assignment 17 Word Order and Semantic Roles: Some sentances can completely change the meaning if the order of the topics in that sentance are changed. For example: CAT CHASE DOG. (The cat chases the dog.) and DOG CHASE CAT. (The dog chases the cat.) Context: sometimes the role of the sign and the functions of the words/morphemes is still not enough to decipher the meaning of the sentence. Physical and social context can also play a role in discovering the meaning of that sentence. Assignment 17 Find an example of an ASL sentence in which word order changes meaning of the sentence.
ALAN, DAVID MY BROTHERS, RYAN THIER FRIEND.
ALAN, RYAN MY BROTHERS, DAVID THEIR FRIEND.
DOG CHASE CAT
CAT CHASE DOG
SALLY SECRET FALL-IN-LOVE MARK
MARK SECRET FALL-IN-LOVE SALLY
I LOVE BANANAS, ALLERGIC TO STRAWBERRIES
I LOVE STRAWBERRIES, ALLERGIC TO BANANAS Part 6 Language in Use Unit 23
Assignment 18 Unit 24
Assignment 19 Unit 26
Assignment 20 Unit 23 Assignment 18 Unit 24 Assignment 19 Unit 26 Assignment 20 Find and list examples of signs that older and younger people use differently and discuss the differences you see. One area in which you might find differences are in the signs for countries.
Computer:old sign: C-hand shape on top of headnew sign: C- handshape on forarm
Birthday:
old sign: BORN + DAY
new sign: middle finger touches chin then touches chest You are walking along and you see a group of your friends talking. You want to join the conversation. Think about and describe how you enter the group and how you get a turn to talk. What signs do you use? What about eye gaze? What is the correct way to enter a conversation and what is the"wrong" way?
I would respectfully wave to get attention of someone in the group, greet my friends and focus on what they are talking about in order to become part of the conversation. If I have an appropriate responce that relates to the conversation I will respond.
This is kind of tricky. It can be hard to find a polite way to enter a conversation. The wrong thing to do is just to walk up and dominate the conversation. Variation and Historical Change Variation: there are many ways to say the same thing. Sometimes the same concept is signed differently because of the region the signer is from, their social status, ethnicity, gender or age varies from the person they are talking to. Historical Change: Many signs have altered over the years because of the way technology has changed, society has changed, and communication in all languages has gone through change. ASL Discourse ASL Discourse has internal structure and is governed by norms such as:
*how many people can sign at one time - 1
*how long one person should sign
*what topics are appropriate When two people are signing it is more distracting to sign EXCUSE-ME and interrupt the conversation rather than just walk through the conversation See Assignment 19 See Assignment 18 Language as Art Storytelling: is a fundamental part of Deaf culture. Stories can be about an experience, a fable, legends, or anecdotes. There are many ways to tell stories in ASL. Some examples are ABC stories where the story is told by only using alphabet handshapes, Number stories (use of number handshapes), and stories with depicting verbs. Percussion Signing: consists of using only one instrument, like a base drum. One will beat rhythmic vibrations that can be felt while another performer signs with the beats. Drama Deaf Humor: was developed within the Deaf community as a way of coping with the oppression they faced in the hearing world. Poetry: uses signs that have similar handshapes used in the same rhythms 1) Think of a significant event that has taken plce in your life, something that you may have told other people about before. Organize your thoughts into a story that you can present to your class. This is different from just telling someone about an event during a conversation--what you are preparing is more like a performance. As you rehearse your story, you may want to videotape yourself so you can see clearly what your story looks like and which parts you may want to change. Memorize your story and perform it for your class. 2) Explain the meaning of the poem "Dandelions" on the DVD. What is it about and what is it's message?
While watching this video it was obvious that the man did not like the dandelions in his yard. He didn't appreciate their beauty. All he saw was weeds so he plucked them and mowed the lawn, but the dandelions kept coming back. The dandelions didn't care what the man thought. They knew they were beautiful so they pushed through the oppression and kept coming back. I think the message is not to give up. Just because someone may continue to tear you down, you can continue to rise up.
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