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Unit 1 - Exploration and Colonization

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Jennifer Byrd

on 21 August 2018

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Transcript of Unit 1 - Exploration and Colonization

Unit 1 - Exploration and Colonization
AHI - Jennifer Byrd
How did they end up in the Americas?

Native Americans

About 12,000 years ago during the Last Ice Age, the water level of the oceans was lower, exposing land that today is under the Bering and Chukchi Seas.

During the glacial epoch this was part of a migration route for people, animals, and plants.
It was across this Bering Land Bridge, also called Beringia, that many human populations first passed from Asia to populate the Americas. 

– Bering Land Bridge

Development of Agriculture
Nomadic – some Native American cultures moved from place to place in search of food and water – “Hunters and Gatherers”.
Other Native American cultures began to plant crops and stay in one location.
First crop – maize (corn)

Native Americans

Mexican people of Tenochtitlan
14th- 16th centuries
Maize cultivation
365 day Calendar system

Ancient Native American Civilizations

Largest empire in Pre-Columbian America
Located in modern day Peru
12-16th centuries
Built extensive roads, bridges, and aqueducts

Ancient Native American Civilizations


Central America
1800 B.C. – 900 A.D.
Contributions included mathematics, astronomy,engineering, and architecture

Ancient Native American Civilizations

North American Native Americans

2. Development of
A nation-state is a geographical area with defined boundaries, a common ethnicity and a strong centralized government.
Leads to the growth of
and major competition.
As nation-states grew, they needed to colonize to compete with other nation-states for natural resources and new markets

Reasons for Exploration and Expansion


Prior to 1517, the whole of Christendom was controlled by the Roman Catholic or Eastern Orthodox Church
In 1517,
Martin Luther
started the
Protestant Reformation
Led to competition for converts, which in turn led to greater exploration and colonization to “compete for souls”.

Reasons for Exploration and Expansion


An economic theory prevalent in Europe during the 16th through 18th centuries asserting that the wealth of a nation depends on its possession of precious metals.
Objective: Export more than you import
Colonies will prove necessary for 1) natural resources and 2) to serve as markets for the Mother Country. (cartoon)
(private ownership of business/industry)
begins to replace feudalism,
gold rather than land is the measure of wealth.
Leads to major competition between nations.

Reasons for Exploration and Expansion


A period from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history. It started as a cultural movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe.
Flowering of art, literature, science, philosophy and politics.
The confidence and curiosity of this period led to greater exploration and colonization.

Reasons for Exploration and Expansion

New technology

A variety of new technologies made travel and exploration safer and more accurate.
Sleeker, faster ships – Caravel
Printing press – mass-production of maps
Better weapons = better protection
Navigational tools – astrolabe, quadrant, compass

Reasons for Exploration and Expansion

Spanish explorers =

= God, Gold and Glory
English explorers =
Sea Dogs
= Mercantilism; competition with Spain and France
French explorers
Northwest Passage
, Gold

Leading Nation-States Exploration

Refers to a
period of cultural and biological exchanges between the New and Old Worlds. 
Exchanges of plants, animals, diseases and technology transformed European and Native American ways of life.
Beginning after Columbus' discovery in 1492 the exchange lasted throughout the years of expansion and discovery. 
The Columbian Exchange impacted the social and cultural makeup of both sides of the Atlantic.

Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange

Viceroy – governors who ruled in the name of the Crown – initially Cortez – no self government


Conquered the Native Americans and established
New Spain.
Land divided into states called
Harsh, forced labor system in which Native Americans farmed, ranched, or mined
Spanish settlers and Native Americans intermarried, creating a mixed race called

Spanish Settlement in the Americas


Sir Walter Raleigh
financed a colony expedition for Elizabeth I at
– an island off the coast of NC. 1st attempt at English settlement – “
The Lost Colony

Captain John Whit
sailed back to England for supplies; Gone 3 years…. When he returned, he found the settlement empty. The word “CROATOAN” was carved into a tree.
Virginia Dare
– first baby born in America to English parents (granddaughter of John White)
, a local NA who helped them, becomes 1st
Protestant convert in America

English Settlement in the Americas

Samuel de Champlain
== Father of New France
1608 – settled along the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes.
Quebec, Montreal – Canada
Detroit (Michigan), New Orleans (Louisiana)
Only Catholics allowed in the new territory
French Protestants, the
were persecuted in France; forbidden to settle in New France so many migrated to the British colonies
Settled primarily by Catholic missionaries and fur-traders (beavers!!)
coureurs des bois
– runners of the woods
Established a string of out-posts rather than expansive, permanent
settlements….thus, better relations with Native Americans initially
(especially the Huron)

All decisions made by the monarch of France – no self government

French Settlement in the Americas

Aidez-moi s'il vous plait???

Venez ici, petits castors!!!

Peter Minuit – Dutch West India Company
1625 -- Led 2 ships of colonists to New Netherlands

Minuit purchased Manhattan Island from Native Americans = New Amsterdam – Hudson River
New York City, Albany, Long Island, New Jersey.
Offered huge land tracts called
Obtained by bringing 50 tenants to the colony

1638 - Minuit led settlers to what became New Sweden
eventually consisted of farms and small settlements along both banks of the Delaware River into modern Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland.

Both New Netherlands and New Sweden are absorbed by the English, who come to dominate N. America.
New Netherlands & New Sweden

13 American colonies... clear across the Atlantic Ocean???

We'll see how that works out for them...

English Colonization

Great Britain

A group of investors pool their money and support a colony in hopes of a profit
Offered limited liability
for investors…only lose what you invest. (Remember Sir Walter Raleigh??)

Joint Stock Companies

Governed by the king and had an appointed governor
Wanted to make a profit from the colony

Royal Colony

Founded by individuals or groups who had received land from the king

Proprietary Colony

Economic improvement
in search of a better way of life; escape debts
– eldest son inherited everything; younger sons had to make their own way
Some accepted free passage to the colonies and would work for 5-7 years as an
indentured servant
to pay it back
Those who paid passage for workers earned 50 acres of land/pp. Called the
head right system
Religious freedom
Many wanted to escape religious persecution
Catholic countries persecuted Protestants and Protestant countries persecuted Catholics
Protestant Reformation led to new denominations

Reasons for Coming to the New World

New England Colonies
Middle Colonies
Southern Colonies

The geography and the
origin of its settlers greatly
affects the social, political,
and economic makeup of
each region!!

Three Colonial Regions

New Hampshire
Rhode Island

New England Colonies

Primarily English
Religious dissenters
Wanted to “break away” from the Church of England (Anglican Church)
A small group of Separatists fled to Holland, then to America to escape persecution and formed Plymouth Bay. They were the
Arrived on the Mayflower in 1620.
Wanted to reform or “purify” the Anglican Church; believed it kept too many Catholic traditions
Fled England and formed Massachusetts Bay

New England Settlers

Coast line
Access to Atlantic Ocean for shipping
Swift, shallow rivers = hard to move inland (but later prove helpful…)
Cold weather
Prevented life threatening diseases
Hard to farm with frozen soil
Hills with rocky soil;Hard to farm

Geography’s Role

Farmed their own food
(subsistence farming)
Fur trade
Very few slaves (no farming for profit)

Boston became a major port

New England Colonies

Social classes less pronounced than in the Middle or Southern, but still had a heirarchy.
Clergy at the top, followed by small farmers/business owners, then women (no rights!)
Very few slaves
Town Meetings
Meeting house was the church
Pass laws, set up responsibilities for the town
Eligible voters participated… but only white, male, landowning church members could vote
Religious leaders were generally gov’t leaders


New England Colonies

Public schools – students learned to read the Bible for religious purposes
Most adults were literate
Establishment of universities – Harvard, Columbia, Princeton, Yale

New England Colonies

Signed by the 41 of the men on the Mayflower because they actually landing outside of the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company and they feared disagreement between themselves and the non-Separatists.
They agreed to, “…combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid: And by Virtue hereof do enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions, and Officers, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general Good of the Colony…”
Set a precedent for self-government and majority rule

Mayflower Compact

1st written form of government in the colonies that resembled a constitution; served as the framework of government for Connecticut.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

Get thee out of

Massachusetts Bay Colony

Merged with Plymouth and became a Puritan refuge
John Winthrop
– Governor
“City Upon a Hill” - They were to be an example for the rest of the world in pious and productive living.
Banished anyone who spoke against Puritan ideas

Roger Williams
Believed in religious freedom, separation of church and state, and fair treatment of the Native Americans
Banished from Massachusetts in 1636
Left and established Providence,
Rhode Island
on land he bought from the Native Americans
Started the first Baptist Church
RI became a haven for free thinkers... (remember that for

Puritan Dissent

OMG…Is that chick actually teaching the Bible????

Anne Hutchinson
Held private prayer meetings and challenged authority of Puritan ministers and leaders
Brought up on heresy charges in 1637
Banished from colony and moved to Rhode Island

Puritan Dissent

Pequot War :
Pequot Indians in Connecticut resisted white settlement
In 1637, English Puritan troops, with the help of Mohegan and Narragansett allies, burned the village and killed the estimated 400-700 Pequots inside.
Any remaining Pequots were either killed or given as slaves to NA allies

Native American Resistance

King Philip’s War
: 1675 – 1678
, (King Philip to the English) son of Massasoit, was now leader of the Wampanoag. Resisted white encroachment and their harsh code of ethics
'Our ancestors' spirits cry to us for revenge,' he proclaimed, 'These people from the unknown world will cut down our groves, spoil our hunting and planting grounds, and drive us and our children from the graves of our fathers.‘
Metacom attacked several English villages, killing men, women and children. The English responded with the same, until….

Native American Resistance

Brainstorm: What effects did English settlement have on their Native American neighbors??

Philip was betrayed, captured and killed. His corpse was drawn and quartered and his severed head placed on a stake to be paraded through Plymouth Colony. Philip`s son was sold into slavery in Bermuda and many other captives were forced into servitude in homes throughout New England. Ended NA resistance for years to come….

New York
New Jersey

Middle Colonies

Settlers came to the area to:
practice their own religion
make money
Proprietors established colonies for both reasons

Middle Colonies

Home to a diverse group of people
Practiced religious toleration

Middle Colonies

Home to a diverse group of people
Practiced toleration of ALL religions

William Penn
– Established it as a haven for the
Society of Friends or
the Quakers
Peaceful coexistence with others, no matter what their differences in belief
Believed in fairness to the Native Americans
Advertised in Europe to populate the colony

Society of Friends or the Quakers

Fertile soil and milder climate than New England
Coastline offered great ports
Numerous rivers for migration and trade
Plentiful resources

Geography of the Middle Colonies

Part Agriculture
Grew grains for cash crops
Farming a huge part of economy
Part Commercial
Small shops and commercial centers develop
New York
Part Industrial
Iron, paper, textiles
Very Few Slaves (not much large scale farming)

Middle Colonies

Does this make sense now??

Recognize me??

The Middle Colonies became the “Bread Basket” of America”

Government in the Middle Colonies

County-town or mixed system
Had to combine governing highly-populated urban areas with rural areas that were more sparsely populated (representative)

Democratic...sort of...
White, male landowners could vote

North Carolina
South Carolina

Southern Colonies

Settlers in the South

Home to a diverse group of people; Practiced religious toleration
Scots Highlanders

Most were established to make money except for
– haven for Catholics; passed the
Md. Toleration Act
to ensure religious freedom

– a haven for debtors and to serve as a buffer b/w SC and Spanish Florida

Settlement in the Southern Colonies
Very diverse – just like the Middle Colonies

To make a profit!!!

Southern Colonies - Reasons for Settlement


Tolerated ALL faiths
BUT: The
Anglican Church
was the established or TAX-supported church
Roman Catholic

John Smith
helped lead the colony with his “don’t work, don’t eat” policy
John Rolfe’s
cultivation of tobacco helped ensure financial success

1st successful English settlement!
1607 – founded by the Virginia Company (joint stock company)
Primarily settled to make money

Jamestown, Virginia

Where: Jamestown, Virginia
Significance: 1st body of elected officials in New World (representative assembly)

House of Burgesses

Most were uneducated
The wealthy hired private teachers or shipped their kids off to school

Southern Colonies


Class System
Upper Class: Wealthy, large plantation owners
Middle Class: Small plantation owners
Lower Class: Poor whites
Slaves – no class at all

Southern Colonies

Southern Colonies

County-type with elected representative who would voice their concerns
Too rural and widespread for town meetings
Only white, male landowners could vote

Argument between the frontiersmen and Governor William Berkeley of Jamestown over Native American attacks on settlers; included former indentured servants
1st popular uprising in America
Rebellion collapsed when Bacon dies; Berkeley hanged 23 men
Led to the desire to have a more stable workforce

Bacon’s Rebellion 1676

1619 – first slaves arrived in Jamestown; may have initially been indentured servants
All colonies had slaves
Each region used slaves for different reasons
Which region do you think would have used the most slaves? Why?

Slavery in the Colonies

Trade between three points:
America, Africa & the Caribbean/America

Triangle Trade
In the route taken by ships carrying slaves from Africa to North America, the
middle leg of the Triangular Trade Route

Middle Passage

Brutal, inhumane treatment
Crowded, cramped conditions
Many died from disease, starvation, cruel treatment
Herded on like cattle
Disease spread rapidly in cramped ships

Conditions for Africans on their Voyage to America

1st Great Awakening
Religious movement that featured passionate preaching
Jonathan Edwards – “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
George Whitefield
– most famous preacher
First mass movement in the colonies
2. Separation of Church and State
Result of 1st Great Awakening
No government role in religion
3. Religious Pluralism
Variety of religious beliefs

Emergence of an American Identity

America’s own identity will become more distinct as she begins to question British control……

STAY TUNED!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

First Great Awakening

What lifestyle might each group
have lived based on geography?
3 Types of colonies:
Native American Beliefs

-- close relationship with the land; communal ownership; conserved natural resources.
Tribal Communities
-- strong bonds of kinship; ensured the continuation of tribal customs
Universal spirit
-- Thought of the natural world as filled with spirits; past generations remained alive to guide the living.
Religious leaders serve as gov't leaders

What problems do you think might arise in a theocracy???

Puritans -- "pure life" of religion; pious
Strict rules based on religion
Games/fun considered sins
Public punishment
The Puritan church (later, the Congregational church) was the established church of New England =

More than one faith
Welcomed and tolerated ALL faiths
Mostly private religious schools
NO GIRLS -- except Quakers

Rich farm land
Coastal for fishing,exporting
Longer growing season & warmer climate
Slow, wide rivers = inland migration/rural population

Cash crops -- tobacco, rice, indigo, sugar
Naval stores - tar & pitch for ship building (Tarheels???)
Slave labor/plantation system
Vocabulary Alert!

16th-18th C. economic theory that trade generates wealth; leads to increased gov't regulation of commercial interests
Vocabulary Alert!!
An economic system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners rather than the gov't
Vocabulary Alert!!
a geographical area w/
defined boundaries, common ethnicity & a
strong central gov't.
Vocabulary Alert!!
intense national pride

Vocabulary Alert!!
a person of combined European and Amerindian descent
Vocabulary Alert!!
a form of government in which a country/area is ruled by religious leaders
Vocabulary Alert!
a condition or system in which two or more states, groups, principles, sources of authority, etc., coexist.
Society in the Middle Colonies
• Social classes included wealthy gentry (educated, rich), middle class (small farmers and merchants) and lower class (sailors, apprentices, etc.)
• Very few slaves – worked in shops in the city

1st permanent English colony...1607
Vocabulary alert!!

European custom in which the eldest son inherited everything.
Joint-stock co's needed to make a profit for investors!!
Full transcript