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War on Terror

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by

Albéric Bertin

on 15 December 2015

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Transcript of War on Terror

World's vision of US changed
Old vision of USA as the gendarme of the world is no more shared after Iraq and Afghan War

=> viewed as new crusades of the Christians against the muslims.
US not anymore the first power and reached their limits (militarily, economically, ...) and now has to cope with other countries :Russia, China, ...
Criticized in many points : simple ideology of the evil axis, helped the emergence of ISIS and others, and because they always act for their interests and not really against terrorism (interested by petrol so cooperation with Arab States suspected to help Al-Qaeda)

2nd Afghanistan War
2007 - Obama sending troupes to stabilize the situation against Taliban
Countries following little by little (NATO,...)
Afghan government took control in 2013
USA want the withdrawal of his soldiers up to 2017

“A war which has no end” on 15 October 2015
Obama
Evolution of the situation
Obama
War on Terror

Before 9/11
=> Against the US and their allies
Black Hawk Down (1993, Somalia)
WTC bombing (26/02/93) => the towers shaked but did not crashed
US Embassies bombing (1998, Kenya and Tanzania)
Millennium Plot (01/2000) => planned bombing against 4 sites in Jordan, the LA Airport and USS The Sullivans
USS Cole Bombing (2000, Yemen)
Background
Cold War
Need for Oil
Soviet Afghanistan War
USSR's invasion of Afghanistan
1979
1988 => USSR retreated
Attacks began
Al-Qaeda
Objectives since 1996 :
Eliminate occidental influence and presence in Muslim countries
"[T]he ruling to kill the Americans and their allies—civilians and military—is an individual duty for every Muslim"
Eradicate the "infidels"
Create a pure Islamist Sate, ruled by the "Charia" and not by man-made laws
Few reactions from US, as it was not an immediate threat
Change of military strategy
World separated between East and West
The main goal : beat the other block, at every cost



Oil is THE critical resource
World strategy to make allies and economic relations in Middle-East, in order to assure a constant supplying in petrol
Afghan Government, communist after a putsch in 1978, make reforms, to modernize the country (women conditions, ...) => Muslims revolted

Invasion to help the government in the repression of the rising civil war

Mujaheddin resistance, helped by US ( CIA trained them, gift of material and money)

Guerrilla war exhausted the Soviet Army
Born during Afghanistan War to fight against USSR => financed in a way by CIA
Actual Situation
New enemy => no borders, no specific countries, invisible, using guerilla => too difficult to fight with the traditional strategies

Stalking/killing of terrorists => Bin Laden (2001, SF), Anwar al-Awlaki (2011, Drone), ...
=> Small military actions
=> Bombing of HVT (UAV, aircrafts, ...)
Iraq Invasion (2003)
Suspected to financially help Al-Qaeda, stocks of chemical weapons
No support from UN and some NATO coutries
Dissolved Iraq army and government => coalition of djihadists in 2006, with old Iraqi officers, financed by private Qatari and Saoudian
Controversial
Problems concerning the human rights : Guantanamo (2002) => status of prisoners, no trial, detainee interrogation practices, ...


Internationals Relations changed :
US now “egoist” : their interests before everything else (petrol, not anymore the world's policeman, ...)
Relations with NATO, UN more strained
Pressure on other countries to make them help their cause => US justifies everything in the name of security

Military Actions
1st Afghan War (End 2001)
⇒ To destroy Al-Qaeda bases
⇒ Joined by Nato in 2003 (UK, France, Germany)
USA internationally viewed as fighting for oil, increased an anti-American resentment and economic and human cost of these wars showed limits of the US power
Policy of Security
Operation
Noble Eagle
, for US Aerospace Defense
Creation of the
Maritime Safety and Security Team, Transportation Security Administration and
of the
Department of Homeland Security
Patriot Act => Restrictions of liberties, for “the security of the country” (Internet and phone lines controlled, conversations recorded, private data accessed ...) and right to sentence people with a status of illegal or enemy soldier.

New norms of security :
Systems to protect commmercial planes' crew (armored doors, cameras, digital code, ...)
More security in the airports (Security X-Ray walk-through ...)

Increasing power of CIA, NSA, FBI, ...
Affects NGO's subventions, suspected of helping terrorism in Middle-East
A policy of interventionism
and
reassurance
Bush
4 commercials planes hijacked :
- 2 hit the World Trade Center
- 1 hit the Pentagon
- 1, Flight 93, aiming the White House, called the "Hero Flight" because rebelled and crashed in the fields.
War began
"Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists."
G.W.Bush

=> War against an organisation and not a State, with the support of almost all the world (NATO, UN, ...)
Superpower of US began to fall
First Attack in the USA ever
9/11
=> 2973 US citizens killed
Except of Pearl Harbor
Hyperpower of USA in every domain

=> First attack on their soil since Pearl Harbor
=> First military defeat, one of their main domain
=> Security questioning worldwide
=>Trade difficulties with Middle-East countries
VS
Different groups
Still discussed
Paris attack : relaunch the discussions about an international coalition against DAESH
ISIS Bombing
Bamako taking of hostages organized by AQMI

"Nous sommes tous des Américains"
from Le Monde (12/09/2001)
From victim..... to executioner
and Abu Ghraib (Afghanistan)
5 most wanted terrorists :
Ali Saed Bin Ali El-Hoorie
Husayn Muhammad Al-Umari
Jaber A. Elbaneh
Joanne Deborah Chesimard
Daniel Andreas San Diego
Full transcript