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Parts of the Brain
Transcript of Parts of the Brain
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, and is composed of the cerebal cortex which is a gray thin tissue that covers the outer portion of the cerebrum. The corpus callosum connects the two hemispheres that that cerebrum is divided into, which are the right and left hemispheres. The hemispheres are also divided into four lobes which is the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe, which will be more elaborated on in their sections. The cerebrum has many functions which include motor functioning, touch sensation, planning and organization, and the other functions that each lobe controls.
The cerebellum, which is located towards the back of the brain, and just above the brain stem, plays a very large role in one's motor control. It also controls the person's balance and equilibrium. The cerebellum receives input from other parts of the brain, as well as sensory receptors and the spinal cord to cause accurate timing and coordination for the person. Although it's safer from trauma than other parts of the brain such as the frontal lobe and temporal lobe, injuries to the cerebellum can have many negative effects, mostly affecting one's movement, such as becoming uncoordinated and moving very slowly. Those with trauma to the cerebellum also stagger when walking. It can also cause speech to be slurred, which is called ataxic dysarthria, and abnormal eye movements, which is nystagmus. This is a very good video that further explains the cerebellum, and the effects of damage to it.
The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brain stem,
and it controls functions such as breathing, digestion,
swallowing, sneezing, and heart and blood vessel function.
Since it's a part of the brainstem, it also helps to transfer
messages to and from many different parts of the brain, as
well as the spinal cord. The midbrain and forebrain give
off sensory and motor neurons which travel through the
Left and Right Hemispheres
The picture to the left displays the strengths of each hemisphere of the brain. The left side of the brain controls the muscles on the right side of the body, and vice versa. Also, sensory information works this way as well. The sensory information from the right side of the body generally crosses over to the left side of the brain, and the information from the left crosses over to the right. See the picture for furthur controls of each hemisphere.
The frontal lobe has is what controls emotions and personality. It is involved in many functions such as motor functions, memory, language, judgment, social and sexual behavior, and more. There are three main parts of the frontal lobe, which are the prefrontal cortex, premotor area, and motor area. The prefrontal cortex controls personality expression, while the premotor and motor area have nerves that help to control motor movement. The frontal lobe is very vulnerable to injuries due to its large size, and being that it's in the front of the brain.
The parietal lobe is located above the occipital lobe and behind the frontal lobe. The parietal lobes have control over cognition, processing information, pain and touch sensation, speech, spatial orientation, and visual perception. If the left part of the lobe was to be damaged, "Gerstmann's Syndrome" would be caused. The syndrome causes difficulty writing, math, and could cause difficulty perceiving objects normally and speaking correctly. Damage to the right side would cause one to neglect part of their body's or the space around them, or make it difficult to do things such as getting dressed, or washing themselves. Damage to both sides can cause a syndrome called "Balint's Syndrome", which affects visual attention, and motor skills.
The temporal lobe is next to the occipital
lobe, and under both the frontal and parietal
lobes. It contains the structures of the limbic
system, and in general the lobe plays a large role in
the organization of sensory input, auditory perception,
speaking, memory and emotional responses.
The occipital lobe is the center of visual
perception in the brain. Due to it's location,
it isn't very likely to be damaged, but if it is
damaged, there can be bad visual effects. This
part of the brain first receives its visual input from
the retina in the eyes. The signals are then
interpreted in the occipital lobes. The occipital
lobes also are involved in color recognition.
Visual hallucinations can also be caused
by disorders of the occipital lobe.
This video further explains the
different effects of damages to
each of the lobes of the brain.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures that are located on the top of the brainstem, and under the cortex. Many of the structures in the system are involved in many emotions and actions that relate to survival, such as getting pleasure from eating or sex. Fear, memory and anger are also related to some structures of the limbic system. Here are some parts of the limbic system, and their functions:
Amygdala: It's an almond shaped group of nuclei that plays a large role in memory and emotional responses.
Thalamus: The thalamus is a large mass of gray matter that connects parts of the cerebal cortex that help sensory perception and movement, to other parts of the brain that do the same. It also controls sleep and awake states, motor control, and the receiving of auditory, somatosensory and visual sensory signals.
Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is about the size of a pearl and leads many different functions in the body. It controls many functions of the peripheral nervous system and plays an important role keeping homeostasis. It also plays a part in different emotional responses, as well as regulates food and water intake, and the cycle of sleeping and waking.
Hippocampus: It's a horseshoe shaped structure, with one located on the left hemisphere, and the other on the right. It’s involved in emotional responses, forming memory, organizing, and storing. It also connects senses to memories, such as smell and sound, as well as emotions to the memories.
Also a part of the brainstem is two other structures called pons and reticular formation. Pons help to transfer information from various parts of the brain to the spinal cord. It connects the medulla oblongata to the cerebral cortex as well, and both hemispheres of the brain use the pons to communicate. It's involved in many functions such as sleep and arousal.
The reticular formation is a group of nerve fibers in the brainstem that also helps to control arousal, along with attention, cardiac reflexes, motor reflexives, motor functions, regulates awareness, and sleep.
This cortex is located in the parietal lobe,
and is very important in the processing of the
body's senses. It recieves messages of touch,
temperature, and other sensations of the body.
The motor cortex is apart
of the frontal lobe of the brain.
It influences the movements of the face,
neck, arm, and legs.
Broca's area is one of the main areas
of the cerebral cortex, located in the frontal lobe. It operates the motor functions that involve the production of speech. If this area of the brain is damaged, the victim is unable to properly speak or form words, yet they can understand language, and this is called Broca's aphasia. It's named after Paul Broca who discovered the Broca's area's functions by testing patients who had language disabilities.
Wernicke's area is located in the left temporal lobe. It is the area of brain that is responsible for language processing, comprehension, recognition, and interpretation. Damage to Wernicke's area would lead to impaired language development and use, which is called Wernicke's aphasia. It's named after Carl Wernicke, after he studied the effects of damage to this part of the brain on language.
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The anatomy of the brain. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/biopsychology/ss/brainstructure_2.htm
Bailey, R. (n.d.). Broca's area.
CNS. (2011, ). Frontal lobe function. Retrieved from http://www.neuroskills.com/tbi/bfrontal.shtml.
Cns, . (2011, ). Traumatic brain injury. Retrieved from http://www.neuroskills.com/tbi/injury.shtml.
Video of patient with
Broca's aphasia. He understands
what he is being asked, but it is
hard for him to respond.
This is a video of a patient with
Wernicke's apashia. It is difficult for her
to process and interpret the language.
By Jessinia Brooks