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451 History of Psychology-Prezi
Transcript of 451 History of Psychology-Prezi
"Mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment." -Functionalism
Charles Darwin William James
Psychology Has a Long Past, but a short history
Molly Clarke, Jovia Keys, Nate Thomas, & Loni Muhammad
Physiological & Experimental Perspectives
Evolution Towards American Pioneers
Structuralism & Functionalism
Darwin's theory of evolution has had an immense impact on psychological thought, placing emphasis on innate characteristics influenced by environmental forces.
Two American psychologists John Dewey and James R. Angell, articulated the concept that the individual is an organism whom interacts with its natural environment. Although, William James is notably the first to express how mental processes serve as functions to adapt an organism and its needs to the physical environment, Dewey and Angell are the first to formally and distinctively introduce this naturalistic approach to psychology.
Wednesday, July 16, 2014
Descartes and Locke represent oppositions towards innate and environmental factors on psychological states.
Münsterberg & Hollingworth
Early Psychological Applications
Descartes' philosophical methodology involved systematic doubt, coming to the conclusion that the physical form is unnecessary to mental capacities. The psychological question of inquiry was not directly addressed, arguing that our question is irrelevant because sensations are distrustful.
As tension rose between basic and applied research in psychology, there were a plethora of applications to test mental ability. The founder of industrial psychology Hugo Münsterberg influenced psychological applications in the workplace. It offered employees strategies to cope with their roles and the environment. A controversial view in early psychological applications that contributed to the idea that physical factors can influence psychological states of a human being was Leta Hollingworth's argument against the prominent view that women are intellectually incapacitated during menstruation explaining female inferiority.
Are Physical Factors Affecting Psychological States?!
Locke directly influenced this psychological question with the
indicating knowledge is learned through experiences. It is through the association among external causation that creates one's ideas and perceptions. Ultimately, he disregarded innate knowledge, arguing that physical reality is the one true reality,
Declared pseudoscience, Spurzheim's theory of Phrenology relied completely on physical factors having an effect on human psychology. He concluded that moral and intellectual faculties were innate.
Cattell's reaction time exemplified the importance of physical factors in psychology linking physical stimuli to psychological responses and awareness.
Wilhelm Wundt expressed physical factors and psychology are invariably intertwined with his definition of psychology involving outer-experiences that contribute to cognition, emotions, & choices.
The Gestalt Movement
The field of psychology took a turn to explain perceptual experiences known famously as the Gestalt movement. Gestalt psychology was a direct criticism against structuralism, arguing how perceptual experiences should be viewed as a whole, rather than individual components; a major influence on how people interpret the world.
"The whole is different than the sum of its parts."
The roots of behaviorism focused on experiences and observable explanations. As classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov, John Watson proposed the process of classical conditioning
As Watson left the academic scene, B. F. Skinner argued behaviors are controlled by external factors and it's more productive to study observable behaviors rather than to study internal events of the mind alone known as operant conditioning based on the work by Edward Thorndike.
Classical to Operant Conditioning
As one of the most intriguing topics in psychology, mental illness was treated in a cruel and inhumane manner. There were plenty efforts to improve the treatment of mental illnesses. As Freud collaborated with Breuer on the Anna O. case it led to the founding event of
. In 1990, The
Interpretation of Dreams
was created focusing on the understanding of the unconscious through dreams.
Frederick Bartlett introduced schemata to psychology, a framework to organize information. Following, Schneider & Shiffrin paralleled Bartletts framework to understand the function of memory that can often be predicted from previous experiences. Another contribution to how factors (innate/physical) can influence various psychological states to process information.
The Cognitive Revolution
Following the work of Darwin, William James' principles of consciousness states that it's a continuous succession of experiences, "a stream of consciousness," meaning physical factors have an impact on psychological states. A direct connection between physiology and consciousness.
The Chicago School of Functional Thought
Dream Analysis, The Association Method, & Hypnosis
Bartlett, Schneider, & Shiffrin
from Pavlov's observations which started the behaviorism movement in psychology