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Anna's copy of Week 3 Online Lecture

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Anna Wallace

on 13 October 2016

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Transcript of Anna's copy of Week 3 Online Lecture

Scott Joplin
Rags become popular
Classically trained
Cornet (Trumpet)
Piano (Banjo)
Double Bass
King Oliver
Louis Armstrong
Jelly Roll Morton
Fats Waller
James P. Johnson
End of collective improvisation
Larger bands
Musically Literate
Chordal v. individual improvised lines
Fletcher Henderson
Duke Ellington
Count Basie
Benny Goodman
Glenn Miller
Charlie Christian
Work with Benny Goodman = Birth of Swing
Part of the Harlem Renaissance
Wrote parts for each member
Instruments made effects
Jazz comp and arrangement into art
Arrangements key in development of Swing
Rooted in Blues
Most successful orchestra during WWII
Jazz legends- Lionel Hampton, Harry James & Gene Krupa
Soloist given freedom to be creative
Horn arrangements riff based
String of hits
Died in plane crash in 1944 at height of fame
Gibson ES-150
Ella Fitzgerald
Nat 'King' Cole
1st African-American with own television program- 1957
'The House that Nat Built'
Billie Holiday
Expansion from the Big Band soloists
Music for listening
Post war downsizing
Faster Tempos
Improvisation over structured chord progression
High level of skill
Charlie 'Bird' Parker
Dizzy Gillespie
Thelonious Monk
Dizzy Gillespie & Chano Pozo
Tito Puente
Propelled Mambo Craze in the 1950s
Bebop elements
Solos & Improvisation
Latin Percussion and Arrangements
Miles Davis
20th Century Classical elements
"Third Stream"
Protege of Dizzy Gillespie & Charlie Parker
Relaxed tempos
Reaction to Bebop
Stan Getz
Dave Brubeck
Max Roach
Contrast to Cool movement
Heavy, Dark & Raw
Attributes from R&B, Gospel--revival-like
Miles Davis
Modal Jazz - scales v. chords
Ornette Coleman
Break Conformity
Art Blakey
Horace Silver
Cha Cha Cha
Jazz look for a young audience
Include rock, soul elements
Electronic & Rock Instrumentation
Swing Rhythm
Page 67
Pages 63-79

Jazz Singers
Page 70
Chapter 5


Pages 71-73
Latin Jazz

Latin Jazz
Page 73


Pages 72-73

Cool Jazz

Pages 73-75

Bossa Nova
Bossa Nova
Page 75
Hard Bop

Page 75-76


Page 77
Page 67

Page 68

Pages 68-69

Page 65
Indoor Marching Band
Page 65

Page 65-66
Pages 65-66

New York/East Coast
Bix Beiderbecke
Page 67

Cultural crossroads
Congo square
Spanish-American War
Instrument influx
Tin Pan Alley, Classical, Military, Church
Absence of written music
First true indigenous American Music
New Orleans
Birth of Jazz
Page 63-64
Marching Bands
Page 64
Hot Jazz
Chicago Style

Born: February 1, 1894 New Brunswick, NJ
Died November 17, 1955 (aged 61) Jamaica, Queens, NYC
Genres: Jazz
Occupation(s): Composer, musician
Instruments: Piano
Years active 1912–1955
Birth name: Thomas Wright Waller
Born: May 21, 1904 NYC
Died: December 15, 1943 (aged 39) Kansas City, MO
Genres: Dixieland, jazz, swing, stride, ragtime
Occupation(s): Musician, composer
Instruments: Piano, vocals, organ
Real name: Leon Bismark Beiderbecke
Born: March 10, 1903 Davenport, IA
Died August 6, 1931 (aged 28) Sunnyside, Queens, NY
Genres: Jazz Dixieland
Occupation(s): Musician, composer
Instruments: Cornet, piano
Years active: 1924–1931
Labels: Columbia/SME Records
Hot v. Jazz Swing

Marching Bands
"Livery Stable Blues" by The Original Dixieland 'Jass' Band became the first jazz single ever issued in early 1917.
Nicknames: Satchmo, Pops
Born: August 4, 1901 New Orleans, LA
Died July 6, 1971 (aged 69) Corona, Queens, NYC
Genres: Dixieland, jazz, swing, traditional pop
Instruments: Trumpet, cornet, vocals
Years active: 1914–1971
Real name: Ferdinand Joseph LaMothe (possibly spelled Lemott, LaMotte or LaMenthe)
Born October 20, 1890 New Orleans, LA
Died July 10, 1941 (aged 50) Los Angeles, CA
Genres: Ragtime, jazz, jazz blues, Dixieland, swing
Occupation(s): Vaudeville comedian, bandleader, composer, arranger
Instruments: Piano
Years active: 1900–1941
Real name: Joseph Nathan Oliver
Born December 19, 1881 Aben, LA
Died April 10, 1938 (aged 56) Savannah, GA
Genres: Jazz, New Orleans
Occupation(s): Bandleader
Instruments: Cornet
Real name James Fletcher Hamilton Henderson, Jr.
Also known as "Smack" Henderson
Born: December 18, 1897 Cuthbert, GA
Died: December 29, 1952 (aged 55) NYC
Genres: Jazz, swing
Occupation(s): Musician, arranger, bandleader
Instruments: Piano
Years active: 1921–50
Real name: Benjamin David Goodman
Also known as "King of Swing", "The Professor", "Patriarch of the Clarinet", "Swing's Senior Statesman"
Born: May 30, 1909 Chicago, IL
Died: June 13, 1986 (aged 77) NYC
Genres: Swing, big band
Occupation(s): Musician, bandleader, songwriter
Instruments: Clarinet
Years active: 1926–86
Real name: Edward Kennedy Ellington
Born: April 29, 1899 Washington, D.C.
Died May 24, 1974 (aged 75) NYC
Genres: Orchestral jazz, swing, big band
Occupation(s): Bandleader, musician, composer
Instruments: Piano
Years active: 1914–1974
Real name: William James Basie
Born: August 21, 1904 Red Bank, NJ
Died: April 26, 1984 (aged 79) Hollywood, FL
Genres: Jazz, swing, big band, piano blues
Occupation(s): Musician, bandleader, composer
Instruments: Piano, organ
Years active: 1924–1984
Real name: Alton Glenn Miller
Born: March 1, 1904 Clarinda, IA
Died: December 15, 1944 (aged 40)
Plane missing over the English Channel
Genres: Swing music, big band
Occupation(s): Bandleader, Musician, Arranger, Composer
Instruments: Trombone
Years active: 1923–1944
Real name: Eleanora Fagan
Also known as Lady Day
Born: April 7, 1915 Philadelphia, PA
Died July 17, 1959 (aged 44) NYC
Genres: Vocal jazz, jazz blues, torch songs, swing, blues, R&B
Occupation(s): Singer-songwriter
Instruments: Vocals
Years active: 1933–1959
Labels: Brunswick, Vocalion, Okeh, Bluebird, Commodore, Capitol, Decca, Aladdin, Verve, Columbia, MGM
Born: April 25, 1917 Newport News, VA
Died: June 15, 1996 (aged 79) Beverly Hills, CA
Genres: Swing, bebop, traditional pop, vocal jazz, blues
Occupation(s): Singer, actress
Instruments: Vocals
Years active: 1934–1994
Labels: Capitol, Decca, Pablo, Reprise, Verve, Brunswick, HMV, Universal
Birth name: Nathaniel Adams Coles
Born: March 17, 1919 Montgomery, AL
Died: February 15, 1965 (aged 45) Santa Monica, CA
Genres: Vocal Jazz, Swing, Traditional Pop
Occupation(s): Singer, musician
Instruments: Piano, vocals, organ, melodica
Years active: 1935–65
Labels: Capitol
Stylistic origins: Swing & Kansas City jazz

Cultural origins: Mid-1940s, United States
Typical instruments: Clarinet saxophone trumpet trombone piano double bass drums keyboards electric guitars acoustic guitars

Derivative forms: Avant-garde jazz post-bop

Subgenres: Hard bop
Also known as Bird, Yardbird
Born August 29, 1920 Kansas City, KS
Died March 12, 1955 (aged 34) NYC
Genres: Jazz, bebop
Occupation(s): Musician, composer
Instruments: Alto saxophone, tenor saxophone
Years active: 1937–1955
Labels: Savoy, Dial, Verve, Mercury; UK: Esquire, Vogue, EMI Columbia
ReaL name: John Birks Gillespie
Born: October 21, 1917 Cheraw, SC
Died: January 6, 1993 (aged 75)
Englewood, NJ
Genres: Jazz, bebop, Afro-Cuban jazz
Occupation(s): Musician, composer
Instruments: Trumpet, piano, vocals
Years active: 1935–93
Labels: Pablo, RCA Victor, Savoy, Verve
Real name: Thelonious Sphere Monk
Born: October 10, 1917 Rocky Mount, NC
Died February 17, 1982 (aged 64) Englewood, NJ
Genres: Jazz, cool jazz, bebop, hard bop
Occupation(s): Musician, composer
Instruments: Piano
Years active: 1940s–1973
Labels Blue Note, Prestige, Riverside, Columbia
Real name: Ernesto Antonio Puente
Also known as "El Rey de los Timbales"
The King of Latin Music
Born: April 20, 1923 NYC
Died June 1, 2000 (aged 77) NYC
Genres: Afro-Cuban jazz, mambo, salsa, Nuyorican Soul
Occupation(s): Musician, producer
Instruments: Timbales, Vibraphone, Drum set, Sax, Piano, Bass, Congas, Bongos, etc.
Years active: 1946–2000
Labels: Tico Records, Fania Records, Sony Discos, RMM Records, Concorde Picante
Stylistic origins Samba, jazz
Cultural origins Late 1950s, Rio de Janeiro's South Zone, Brazil
Typical instruments Classical/acoustic guitar, piano, electronic organ, acoustic bass, drums
Real name Astrud Evangelina Weinert Gilberto
Born March 29, 1940
Origin Salvador, Brazil
Genres Bossa nova, Latin jazz, Brazilian jazz
Occupation(s) Singer, Songwriter, Painter
Years active 1963–present
Labels Verve, CTI, Perception
Real name: João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira
Born: June 10, 1931
Genres: Bossa nova, Samba, Brazilian jazz, Latin jazz
Occupation(s): Guitarist, singer, Songwriter
Instruments: Singer, guitarist
Years active: 1950–present
Born: May 26, 1926 Alton, IL
Died September 28, 1991 (aged 65) Santa Monica, CA
Occupation(s): Musician, bandleader, composer
Instruments: Trumpet, flugelhorn, piano, organ, synthesizer
Years active: 1944–1975, 1980–1991
Labels: Capitol Jazz/EMI, Columbia/CBS, Warner Bros., Dial Records, Birdland, Blue Note
Real name: Stanley Gayetzky
Born: February 2, 1927 Philadelphia, PA
Died June 6, 1991 (aged 64) Malibu, CA
Genres: Jazz, bossa nova, West Coast jazz, cool jazz, bebop
Occupation(s): Musician
Instruments: Tenor saxophone, baritone saxophone
Years active: 1943–1991
Labels: Verve Records
Born: December 6, 1920 Concord, CA
Died: December 5, 2012 (aged 91) Norwalk, CT
Genres: Jazz, cool jazz, West Coast jazz, third stream
Occupation(s): Musician, composer, bandleader
Instruments: Piano
Years active: 1940s–2012
Labels: Columbia, Legacy, Sony, Concord, A&M, Atlantic
Studio album by Miles Davis
Released August 17, 1959
Recorded March 2 and April 22, 1959
Studio Columbia 30th Street Studio, NYC
Genre Modal jazz
Length 45:44
Label Columbia
Producer Teo Macero, Irving Townsend
Also known as Abdullah Ibn Buhaina
Born: October 11, 1919 Pittsburgh, PA
Died October 16, 1990 (aged 71) NYC
Genres: Jazz, hard bop, bebop
Occupation(s): Musician, bandleader
Instruments: Drums, percussion
Years active: 1942–1990
Labels: Blue Note
Born: January 10, 1924 Newland, NC
Died: August 16, 2007 (aged 83) Manhattan, NY
Genres: Jazz, bebop, hard bop
Occupation(s): Musician, composer, educator, civil rights activist
Instruments: Drums, percussion
Years active: 1944–2002
Labels: Capitol, Impulse!
Born: September 2, 1928 Norwalk, CT
Died: June 18, 2014 (aged 85) New Rochelle, NY
Genres: Jazz, hard bop, mainstream jazz, soul jazz, jazz fusion
Occupation(s): Musician, composer, arranger
Instruments: Piano
Years active: 1946–2004
Labels: Blue Note, Silveto, Emerald, Columbia, Impulse!, Verve
Real name: Randolph Denard Ornette Coleman
Born: March 9, 1930 Fort Worth, TX
Died: June 11, 2015 (aged 85) NYC
Genres: Avant-garde jazz, free jazz, jazz-rock, free funk
Occupation(s): Musician, composer
Instruments: Alto saxophone, tenor saxophone, violin, trumpet
Years active: 1958–2015
Labels: Atlantic, Blue Note
Also known as "Trane"
Born: September 23, 1926 Hamlet, NC
Died July 17, 1967 (aged 40) Huntington, NY
Genres: Avant-garde jazz, hard bop, post-bop, modal jazz, free jazz
Occupation(s): Musician, composer, bandleader
Instruments: Tenor, soprano and alto saxophone
Years active: 1946–1967
Labels: Prestige, Blue Note, Atlantic, Impulse!
Free Jazz
1959: The Year That Changed Jazz
Page 75-76
John Coltrane
Paul Whiteman
Most successful orchestra
of the 1920's

Mixed early jazz with pop

Launched Bing Crosby
Pages 68-69
Popular Music 1940-1955
Chapter 6
Page #
Movie soundtracks hit the charts
Rodgers & Hammerstein
Carousel, South Pacific, Oklahoma!, The King and I, The Sound of Music
Rodgers & Hart
"Blue Moon", "My Romance", "My Funny Valentine", "The Lady is a Tramp", "Isn't It Romantic", "Bewitched, Bother and Bewildered"
Lerner & Loewe
Brigadoon, Paint Your Wagon, My Fair Lady, Camelot
Sammy Cahn & Jule Styne
"Saturday Night (Is the Loneliest Night of the Week)", "The Things We Did Last Summer", "Let It Snow!, Let It Snow!, Let It Snow!", "Come Fly With Me"
Page 81
The Adult Mainstream
Name: Lorenz Milton Hart
Born: May 2, 1895 NYC
Died: November 22, 1943 (aged 48) NYC
Genres: Musical theatre
Occupation(s): Composer, songwriter, playwright
Years active: 1919 until Hart's death in 1943
28 stage musicals and more than 500 songs
Name: Richard Charles Rodgers
Born: June 28, 1902 NYC
Died December 30, 1979 (aged 77) NYC
Genres: Musical theater
Occupation(s): Composer, songwriter, playwright
Name: Frederick Loewe
Friedrich (Fritz)Löwe
Born: June 10, 1901 Berlin, Germany
Died: February 14, 1988 (aged 86) Palm Springs, CA
Genres: Musical theatre
Occupation(s): Composer, songwriter
Name: Alan Jay Lerner
Born: August 31, 1918 NYC
Died June 14, 1986 (aged 67) NYC
Genres Musical theatre
Occupations lyricist, librettist

Real name: Samuel Cohen
Born: June 18, 1913 NYC
Died January 15, 1993 (aged 79)
Los Angeles, CA
Occupation: Lyricist
Real name: Julius Kerwin Stein
Born: December 31, 1905 London, England
Died September 20, 1994 (aged 88) Manhattan, NY
Occupation(s): Songwriter
Other Notables
Page 82
Real name: Enrico Nicola Mancini
Born: April 16, 1924 Cleveland, OH
Died June 14, 1994 (aged 70) Los Angeles, CA
Genres: Film scores, easy listening, jazz
Occupation(s): Composer, arranger, conductor
Instruments: Piano, flute, piccolo
Years active: 1946–1994
Film/TV Composer
Henry Mancini
Early Singer/Songwriter/Label Owner
Johnny Mercer
Real name: John Herndon Mercer
Born: November 18, 1909 Savannah, GA
Died: June 25, 1976 (aged 66) Hollywood, Los Angeles, CA
Occupation(s): Songwriter, lyricist
Years active: 1930–1976
Woody Herman Orchestra
Benny Goodman Orchestra
Harry James Orchestra
Les Brown Orchestra
Jack Teagarden Orchestra
Ina Ray Hutton Orchestra
Tommy Dorsey Orchestra
Decline of the Big Band
Page 82
All defunct by 1947
Frank Sinatra
Page #
The Adult Mainstream
Page 83
Born: Francis Albert Sinatra
December 12, 1915 Hoboken, NJ
Died: May 14, 1998 (aged 82) Los Angeles, CA
Occupation: Singer actor director producer
Years active: 1935–1994
Genres: Traditional pop, easy listening, jazz swing, vocal jazz
Instruments: Vocals
Labels: Columbia, Capitol, Reprise, Warner Bros
#25 All-time sales listing- more than 150 million records worldwide.
Latin Influence
The Adult Mainstream
Page 83-84
Real Name: Margarita Carmen Cansino
Born: October 17, 1918 Brooklyn, NY
Died: May 14, 1987 (aged 68) Manhattan, NY
Occupation: Actress, dancer
Years active: 1931–1972
Rita Hayworth
Desi Arnaz
Real Name: Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III
Born: March 2, 1917 Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
Died December 2, 1986 (aged 69) Del Mar, CA
Occupation: Actor, musician, producer
Years active: 1936–1960, sporadically until 1982
One of the era's top stars
The press coined the term "love goddess" to describe Hayworth after she had become the most glamorous screen idol of the 1940s.
She was the top pin-up girl for GIs during World War II.
Latin music in prime time
Don Azpiazú
Havana Casino Orchestra
Leading Cuban orchestral director in the 1920s and '30s
introduced authentic Cuban dance music and Cuban musical instruments to a wide audience in the USA.
Real Name: Francisco de Asís Javier Cugat Mingall de Bru y Deulofeu
Born: January 1, 1900 Girona, Spain
Died: 27 October 1990 (aged 90) Barcelona, Spain
Occupation: Singer, songwriter, bandleader
Years active 1925–1990
Xavier Cugat
No input into songs
Minimal touring
Provided Professional service
Controlled Radio output
Major labels
Page 84
Artists signed to exclusive contract for a set salary

Largest label n U.S.
Three reasons
Heavy promotion
Pursued and developed young talent
Cut prices with the introduction of 33 1/3
LP (Long play) - Higher quality

Artists- Frank Sinatra (until 1953) Thelonious Monk, Dave Brubeck, Miles Davis, Johnny Mathis, Rosemary Clooney
Major Labels
Page 85
Early dominance waned for staying with 78 rpm format
Artists jumped to other labels
Signed major stars of the day
Benny Goodman, Glenn Miller, Duke Ellington, Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (with Frank Sinatra), Dizzy Gillespie, Perry Como and Dinah Shore
Major Labels
Page 85
RCA Victor
Bing Crosby & Louis Jordan
Started a new label in US - London Records
Major Labels
Page 85
Sold American interests (MCA)
Helped develop Radar for the war effort
Local Market
Independent Labels
Amateur writers and artists
Paid Majors for distribution
Barrelhouse and Boogie-Woogie
Large influence on jump blues and the first generation of Rock and Roll
Roosevelt Sykes
Pete Johnson
Meade Lux Lewis
Albert Ammons
"Race" to R&B
Page 87
Increasing of 'crossover' hits
Black Artist regularly appear on the popular charts
"Race" to R&B
Page 88
The Mills Brothers
Louis Jordan
Big Joe Turner
Jump Blues & Shouters
"Race" to R&B
Page 88
Real name: Louis Thomas Jordan
Also known as "The King of the Jukebox"
Born: July 8, 1908 Brinkley, AR
Died: February 4, 1975 (aged 66) Los Angeles, CA
Genres: Swing, jump blues, jazz, blues, R&B, big band, comedy music
Occupation(s): Bandleader, songwriter, singer, saxophonist, actor
Instruments: Alto saxophone, saxophone, piano, clarinet, vocals
Years active: 1932–1975
Labels: Decca, Mercury
Real name: Joseph Vernon Turner Jr
Also known as The Boss of the Blues
Born: May 18, 1911 Kansas City, MO
Died November 24, 1985 (aged 74) Inglewood, CA
Genres: Jump blues, rock and roll, swing music
Instruments: Vocals
Years active: 1920s–1980s
Labels: Atlantic, National, Vocalion, Decca, Pablo
Small Regional labels bring new sounds
Increasing buying power of youth/teen market
Powerful Radio stations bring independent music to wide audience
DJ's become celebrities
Rise of the Independent Label
Page 91
Ahmet Ertegun
Atlantic Records
Page 93
Also known as A. Nugetre
Born: July 31, 1923 Istanbul, Turkey
Died December 14, 2006 (aged 83) NYC
Genres: Blues, rhythm and blues, Rock n roll
Occupation(s): Record label executive, record producer, songwriter, composer, philanthropist
Out of Jubilee Quartet tradition
Arrival of southern churches in northern cities
Close harmonies
No instruments needed
Result of the Great Migration
Doo Wop
Page 97
Rock and Roll Confluence
second most-recorded jazz composer after Duke Ellington
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