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Transcript of Teaching Speaking
it is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving and processing information. (Brown, 1994; Burn & Joy, 1997)
Make social contact with people
Discuss with someone to seek or express opinions, to persuade someone about something or to clarify information
Describe things, to complain about people’s behavior, etc.
Components underlying speaking effectiveness
B.- Classroom speaking activities:
-Harmer. J. (2001)
The practice of English language Teaching
-Richards, J Renandya, W. (2002).
Methodology in language teaching- An anthology of current practice
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
What speaking is?
1. - Grammatical competence:
It includes grammar, vocabulary, and mechanics (sounds of letter and syllables, pronunciation of words, intonation and stress).
It enables speakers to use and understand English language structures accurately, which contributes to their fluency.
2. - Discourse competence:
It is important coherence and cohesion that give a meaning to the communication process.
3.- Sociolinguistic competence:
Learners must have competence which involves knowing what is expected socially and culturally by users of the target language.
It helps learners know what comments are appropriate according to the context.
4.- Strategic competence:
It is the way learners manipulate language in order to meet communicative goals. (Brown, 1994, p. 228).
It is perhaps the most important of all the communicative competence elements.
A.- Elements of speaking
The ability to speak fluently is process information and language “on the spot”
3.Lexis and grammar
(I’m sorry) I didn’t quite catch that
(I’m sorry) I don’t understand.
Could you explain that again, please?
A2: Mental/Social processing
Interacting with others
B1: Acting from a script.
Improve confidence (when the students come out into the front of the class)
Teachers have to be careful about the atmosphere of the class.
B2: Communication games:
Solve a puzzle
Draw a picture
Put things in the right order
Find similarities and differences between pictures.
They have to do these games in pairs because they have to talk to a partner.
in groups, students have to discuss a topic before to speak or answer in public.
One of the best ways of encouraging discussions is to provide activities which force students to reach a decision or a consensus.
Sometimes it fails because the students are reluctant to give an opinion in front of the class.
B4: Prepared talks:
is t an activity where a student has to present about a topic of their own choice.
There are useful because both, questioner and respondent, have something to say to each other.
B6: Simulation and role-play:
Can be used to improve oral fluency, or to train students for specific situations of the real life.
B7: The role of the teacher:
The teacher acts as a prompter, participant or a feedback provider depending on the activity. They have to be careful that they do not participate too much, because students are active.