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Trophic Levels

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by

Teika Clavell

on 10 February 2014

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Transcript of Trophic Levels

Sunlight
Producers
Primary Consumers
Secondary Consumers
Tertiary Consumers
Provides 100% energy
Solar Energy
Without sunlight, producers, or plants and selective organisms, cannot produce energy.
Photosynthesis
The energy taken from the sun by producers is fixed by photosynthesis, although a proportion of this energy is lost as it is used up during photosynthetic reactions.

Of the energy that is fixed in photosynthesis some will be used during respiration (the releasing of Oxygen by plants) while the remaining energy is the portion that is incorporated into the biomass (growth). It is the energy that is incorporated into the biomass that is available for the next trophic level.
How it Works
Organisms, typically plants, that make their own every from a primary energy source such as solar energy from the sun.
Producers
Producers are not limited to plants. There are several other organisms that make their own energy from the light, typically simple organisms (protist).

Other producers produce their energy from a chemical primary source. A good example of this are bacteria that live in the sea near hydrothermal vents. They are called chemosynthetic bacteria.
Autotrophs
Autotrophs, animals that make their own energy, need more than just the sun to create energy. By now you should know that producers such as plants, need water, and carbon dioxide to survive. These ingredients are the building blocks to all energy on Earth.
Need More than the Sun
Approximately 10% of the energy a producers makes is able to be passed on to the next trophic level.
Energy Transfer
Animals that only eat producers, plants, to obtain their energy.
Herbivores
At this level in the trophic pyramid, there is only 1% of the original plant energy is transferred to the next level.
Energy Loss
Most of the energy obtained to used to make heat (it takes a lot of energy to keep the body warm, moving, and digesting). A portion of what's left is used for growth and reproduction. That leaves 10% transfer to the next trophic level (1% of the original energy from plants).
Where Does the Energy Go?
These organisms eat the Primary Consumers.
Omnivores and Carnivores
Like the Primary Consumers, most of the energy obtained by Secondary Consumers is used for heat, activity, and digestion. A portion is also used for growth (biomass) and reproduction. 10% of the energy from this level is transferred to the next level. That is .1% of the energy originally obtained by plants.
Energy Loss and Transfer
Tertiary Consumers eat Secondary Consumers. Because most of the energy is used at the lower trophic levels, there is less biomass (amount of organisms) at this level than any other. They receive .01% of the original energy obtained from the sun by plants; the root of all energy in the food chain.
Top of the Food Chain
Trophic Levels
As you travel up the trophic levels, there is less energy transferred
As you travel down the trophic levels, there is an increase of biomass; the amount of organisms in the level due to the amount of energy available
Full transcript