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# Classroom Strategies for Math Class

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## Devdatta Gupta

on 28 March 2017

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#### Transcript of Classroom Strategies for Math Class

Strategies for the 7 stages of Inquiry Cycle
Paired interviews
Student interview each other about their prior information on the topic for a fixed time interval.

Strategies for tuning in

Purposes:
to tap into learners prior knowledge, interests, experiences, misconceptions and misunderstanding about maths
to generate questions for investigation
to help plan further activities

Strategies for tuning-in in Maths teaching
Brainstorming
Mind mapping
Think, Pair and Share
Paired interview
People Bingo
Post-a-question
Question of the day etc.

Classroom Strategies for Math Class
Post - a - Question

The are students offered to write their question about a topic. The questions are anonymous. Questions are put in a box. The students are asked to draw one question and attempt to answer it.
Questions posted in the question box is cleared at the end of the week and the questions are classified and displayed.

Mind Mapping
Finding Out
Mathematical Experiments
Experiment are activities in which students engage to explore a particular phenomenon, outcome or proof of a theory.
Experiments should be hands on, interactive experience.
They help to develop important skill of prediction, observation and problem solving.

Examples of math experiments
Statement - For an event E of a random experiment, P(E) + P(not E) = 1

Objective -To verify the above statement by tossing three coins of different denominations simultaneously. Event E happens if we get at least two heads and event not E happens if we do not get two or more than two heads.
1) Theoretical Probability
Possible Outcomes:
HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, HTT, TTH, THT, TTT
P(E) = 4/8 = ½, P(not E) = 4/8 = ½
So, P(E) + P(not E) = 1

2) Experimental Probabilty
Repeating the experiment for 20 trials,
0 1 2 3
Number of times out of 20 trials
4 7 5 4
P (E) = 9/20, P (notE) = 11/20

So, P(E) + P(not E) = 1

Strategies for Finding Out

Purposes:

1) to further stimulate students' curiosity

2) to provide new information

3) to develop research / information
skill

Going Further
Jigsaw Strategy can be employed for long answer type questions in mathematics or for topics like Conic sections where each member of a group (of four) can study about a section.
It is a method of collaborative learning in which students team up to explore a significant question or create a meaningful knowledge.
They are individually accountable for their work.
Through groups works, they learn to work as a team.
Jigsaw Grouping
This grouping strategy is a useful way of working with a large body of information. It also encourages individuals to teach others about what they have learned.
Strategies for going further

Purposes:

to provide more information in order to broaden the range of understanding
to revise, where necessary
to meet the particular interest that have emerged during the unit

Strategies for making conclusion

Purposes:
to assist students to make conclusions and generalisations about the topic
to assess and demonstrate students progress towards the planned understanding

Strategies for sharing, discussion and reflection

Purposes:
to develop the skills and strategies needed for effective reporting to others
to analyse the work of other student and provide appropriate and constructive feedback
to develop positive self esteem and self awareness

Class meetings
Regular class meetings that use some sort of formal meeting structure can be an excellent way for sharing and discussion.
Procedure:
1) Devising a meeting agenda
2) Speaking through the chair
3) Establishing a time limit
Class diary
It is a record kept by the whole class.
This is to be done at the end of each day. The diary can be written by the teacher (taking students' ideas) or by individuals or by group of students.

Self-assessment
There are many ways in which students can self assess their progress in a unit. Standard format may be as follows:

Concept Maps
Strategies for sorting out

Purposes:
to provide students with various means of processing and representing information and ideas arising out of finding-out stage
to allow for diverse range of outcomes
to create concrete records of experience and information gathered through mathematics
Graphs (Pie Charts, Line Graphs, Bar Graphs, Boxplots etc.)
Venn diagrams
Venn diagrams help students to see pattern, similarities and difference among the data they gather.
Simulation
Simulations are wonderful way to help students really 'get inside' a topic. Students can mimic activities, events or experiences relevant to the topic.
Simple simulations for math unit topics include trade, market place etc.

Sample Questions:
The teacher poses a broad question each day & throughout the day students spend a few moments thinking about it. Question is used as the basis for morning discussion the following day.
Question of the day

Graphing is one of the most common ways student can work with quantitative data gathered for a unit of work. Eg., litter in the school ground, occupation of parents, height, weight of the students etc. Various form of graphs should be explored.
Taking Action
Develop/implement an action plan for school
After studying differential calculus and its applications, the student may be asked to fix the the dimension of a water reservoir of fixed capacity to be constructed inside the school area. Cost of the land area and the digging cost are to be given for cost calculation.
By applying the concept of optimization, the optimum depth, length and breadth of the tank is to be find out.
Suppose an underground water tank of volume 250 cubic meters has to be dug out. The cost of the land is Rs 50/sq. meter. The cost of digging increases with the depth and the cost of the whole tank is Rs 400/meter depth. Dimension of the tank is to be find out for least cost.
Daily Water and electricity consumption data of school

The student may be asked to collect the above data for a particular period.
They can represent the data in the graphical form, mean consumption and deviation from the mean (standard deviation) can be find out.
From the study of the above data, reason for the variation of the consumption or any wastage can be find out and action can be taken based on that.

Strategies for taking action

Purposes:
to assist students to make links between what they have learnt and their experience in real world
to enable students to make choices & develop belief that they can be effective paricipants in society
to provide opportunities for ongoing learning about the topic
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Photographs, paintings, drawings & other visual images

Visual images, photographs can be a powerful way for students to find out about the topics of mathematics.
Inviting an expert to the classroom can be an excellent way to gather information as well as developing skills of listening, speaking and questioning.
Internet
Making Conclusions
Sharing, Discussion, Reflection
Summary of the Measurement Facts
Laws of Exponents, etc.
Sorting Out
Contracts
Tuning In
Internet allows access to incredible amount of information. We can choose to use search engines to explore the topic ourselves. Some websites students can use:
Khan Academy, Purple Math, Math Picke, Hooda Math, Arcademics etc.
CD-ROMs
CDs can be a wonderful resource for teachers and students both. This easy to use resource can help teachers to develop their background knowledge about a topic and support in the unit planning process.
A contract can be drawn up as series of tasks, that are carried out by individuals. The contract should be written up, a deadline negotiated & signed by the teacher & students.
PMI: Plus - Minus - Interesting to see

By making the students analyze a topic using this technique, we can help them see the bigger picture.
Plus
- focusing on positive outcomes, advantages,
Minus
- focusing on limitations, negative outcomes
Interesting to see
- application on practical life, create interest for further studies
Example -
After studying the measures of central tendency of data, students must be able to come up with their advantages, limitations & applications.
Bibliography
Book
: Murdoch, Kath. Classroom Connections. 1st ed. Eleanor Curtain Publishing. Print.

Images
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ClipartFest. (2017). inquiry cycle clipart - ClipartFest. [online] Available at: https://clipartfest.com/categories/view/92e4d96662b10f53d8e051e089a20144613be13d/inquiry-cycle-clipart.html [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

XMind. (2017). Unit 3 - Intro to Quadratics - via @XMind online library. [online] Available at: http://www.xmind.net/m/ibTE [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Brighton.ac.uk. (2017). Advice for parents and carers. [online] Available at: https://www.brighton.ac.uk/studying-here/applying-to-brighton/advice-for-parents-and-carers/index.aspx [Accessed 26 Mar. 2017].

My Market Research Methods. (2017). Types of Charts and Graphs: Choosing the Best Chart. [online] Available at: http://www.mymarketresearchmethods.com/types-of-charts-choose/ [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Slideshare.net. (2017). Assessing 21st century skills. [online] Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/HarleenSing/assessing-21st-century-skills-28570572 [Accessed 26 Mar. 2017].

Pinterest. (2017). Practice Questioning with a Question Ball. [online] Available at: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/168462842282719940/ [Accessed 26 Mar. 2017].

Math, B. (2017). People BINGO: Math Style – A Great Back To School Math Activity. [online] Beyond Traditional Math. Available at: https://beyondtraditionalmath.wordpress.com/2015/08/10/people-bingo-math-style-a-great-back-to-school-math-activity/ [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

123RF Stock Photos. (2017). Three adorable children thinking isolated over white. [online] Available at: https://www.123rf.com/photo_4333134_three-adorable-children-thinking-isolated-over-white.html [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Iblog.dearbornschools.org. (2017). Market Day Success « Mrs. Greco's Classroom. [online] Available at: https://iblog.dearbornschools.org/grecoj/2016/04/25/market-day-success/ [Accessed 24 Mar. 2017].

prezi.com. (2017). Conic Sections in Architecture. [online] Available at: https://prezi.com/yrykcokuwrpm/conic-sections-in-architecture/ [Accessed 24 Mar. 2017].

E-Learning Heroes. (2017). New Freebie- Diary Interaction in PPT. [online] Available at: https://community.articulate.com/discussions/building-better-courses/new-freebie-diary-interaction-in-ppt [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Pinterest. (2017). Student Self Evaluation. [online] Available at: https://www.pinterest.com/explore/student-self-evaluation/ [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

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