Transcript of Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad Unless you have never heard of the underground railroad, you know the underground railroad was not a subway but actually a large network of people who helped enslaved african americans get to the freedom of the northern U.S. and Canada. It wasn't easy to get to the north. Slaves had to usually hide during the day and travel at night to avoid being seen. Money often needed to be raised to get new clothes for the slaves to keep people from getting too suspicious of their tattered clothes. How did the Underground Railroad Start? In 1793 when the Fugitive Slave act (the law that stated that the state that the runaway slave was from was responsible for catching them) Issac Hopper, and other Quakers established the Underground Railroad. I, John Brown, was highly opposed to slavery. I was a man of action, most well known for my attempt to arm slaves with weapons. My attempt failed, but helped establish the League of Gileadites, an organization that helped protect runaway slaves from slave masters. Issac Hooper 10 Famous Abolitionists 1 2 I, William Lloyd Garrison, founded the antislavery newspaper, "The Liberator". In the first issue, I published my now famous quote, "I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. . . . I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD," which brought hope to slaves and other abolitionists through out the country. 3 My name is Fredrick Douglas. I was born a slave in Maryland, shipped to Baltimore where I spent seven pretty comfortable years, and then shipped back to the country to a cruel slave owner, where I was whipped on a daily basis and barely fed. I planned to escape but was discovered and jailed. Two years later, while working at a shipyard in Baltimore, I fled for New York. Two weeks later, I was in New Bedford, Massachusetts and married. I began to speak at antislavery conventions and in England, Ireland, and Scotland. In 1845, I published the first issue of my antislavery newspaper, "The North Star". 4. My name is Lydia Maria Child. I wrote essays, letters, articles, and even novels against slavery. I supported items not made by slaves and convinced others to support them too. 5. My name is Henry Ward Beecher. I was a preacher and made my church a stop on the underground railroad and an antislavery institution. I preached against slavery and against unfair wage cuts in the working class. I became one of the most famous men in America. 6. My name is Sojourner Truth. Born with the name Isabella, I was a slave, and separated from my family the age of nine, I was sold and bought many times until I was bought by John and Mary Dumont. I was abused frequently, but eventually escaped to freedom. I became a preacher in New York City, which brought me in contact with abolitionists and woman right defenders. I became a powerful advocate for both. I even wrote a book titled "The Narrative of Sojourner Truth" about my life as a slave. 7. My name's Harriet Tubman. I was born a slave in Dorchester County Maryland. Once while protecting a field hand from an angry overseer with a brick, the overseer hit me instead with the brick on accident. I never fully recovered and through out my life would fall into a deep sleep randomly. I got married in 1844, to John Tubman, but when I found out all the slaves on the plantation were to be sold, I ran away to Phildalphia where I saved my money, then returned to Maryland, where I rescued my sister, and her children. On my next trip I rescued my brother and two other men, returning on my next trip to rescue my husband, only to find that he had married another woman. I returned to the South again and again nineteen times in fact, and never once lost a passenger. 8. Hello, my name is Wendall Phillips. My nickname was "The Golden Trumpet" of abolitionism. I dedicated my life to fighting for equal rights for everyone, from slaves, to native americans, to woman, and many more causes. 9. My name is Garrett Smith. I was a wealthy abolitionist born in Utica, NY. I went to antislavery conventions, and funded John Brown's Harper Ferry attack. 10. My name is Harriet Beecher Stowe. I married Calvin Ellis Stowe, in 1836, and remained married for 50 years. Living in Kentucky, I saw first hand the brutality of slavery and helped my house servant, Zillah, escape to Canada. I wrote a book against slavery, titled "Uncle Tom's Cabin", first published in the newspaper "A National Era" and then later published in book form and sold 10,000 copies. By Mae McGrath and Amelia Hall Carefully made plans to escape, if heard by the wrong person, could be ruined so slaves planning to escape often used codes to communicate their plans. Quilts were often used to spread messages. We don't know what this quilt means, but to slaves it could be the difference between life and death. Other codes were hidden in music like this song: Though all these people were different, they all wanted one thing. Rights Underground Railroad Facts: 1. More than 100,000 slave sought to find freedom on the underground railroad.Full transcript
2. People who helped the slaves on the underground railroad were called conductors. Slaves were also told to follow the North Star to reach the north. Bibliography http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2944.html http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/harriet-tubman.html http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/sojourner-truth.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1550.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1561.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1539.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p4439.html http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/henry-ward-beecher.html http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/phillips.html http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/abolitionism/abolitionists/Smith.htm http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/harriet-beecher-stowe.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pw6N_eTZP2U How Does the Underground Relate to New York?
Since New York was in the North, it was a popular destination for escaping slaves. Also if slaves were looking to travel to Canada, they would travel through New York. Many famous abolitionists lived in New York such as Harriet Beecher Stowe and Fredrick Douglas (for a very short time.) Abolitionist conventions also frequently took place in New York. Primary Sources The song, "Follow the Drinking Gourd", was a song actually sung by slaves planning on escape, to send secret messages to each other. The quilt shown in the picture, is an actual quilt used by runaway slaves, to send messages. (we did not actually take the picture, but was taken by someone who owns the quilt.) The pictures of the abolitionists were actual pictures taken of them. THE WAR IS OVER! Hey, war over slaves free Say Robert is trying to send a letter to Mary. Once the Civil War was over, and the slaves were free, it took awhile for word to spread. You couldn't just sent a text saying and have it reach the person in seconds. You had to send a letter. Most people are probably say, "Okay, big deal, letters don't take that long." But you'd be wrong. The letter might not reach Mary for months, if it even gets to her at all. The mail service was so hectic in the time of the war and even after the war, that mail would often get lost, stolen, or sent to the wrong person. So Mary's letter is now Todd's letter. So Todd tells everyone he knows. Then those people will tell the people they know, and eventually Mary will find out. She may never get her letter though. As you can see this process takes a very long time. Mary Thanks for reading our Prezi!