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Carbohydrates (4)

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by

craig botnen

on 29 November 2016

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Transcript of Carbohydrates (4)

Carbohydrates
The Good Suff
Fuel Source
Brain
Nervous System
RBC
Muscles (intense activity)
How many calories per gram?
4
*
Actually....
3.87 calories for simple sugars
3.57 to 4.12 calories per gram for complex carbohydrate
You could survive solely on protein and fat
To optimize physical training and athletic endeavors, carb intake is essential
Other functions too!
prevent breakdown of muscle tissue
Fiber-rich carbs facilitate the digestive process
Fiber-rich carbs minimize your risk of overeating
Storage
Stored as Glycogen
Liver and muscles
avg. 80g
avg. 400g
Any extra get stored as fat
Carbs can be
Simple
or
Complex
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
Basic unit of
all carbs
most common form
important source of E
all other sugars converted to this
Fruit sugar
absorbed in small intestine
coveted to glucose
usually bonded to glucose in dairy
converted to glucose
2 monosaccharides (always one glucose)
Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose
Glucose + Fructose
Glucose + Galactose
Glucose + Glucose
table sugar
milk
Whiskey :)
3 or more monosaccharides
Usually linked together to form a chain
Mostly rich in fiber, vitamins and minerals
Take longer to digest, don't raise blood sugar levels as quickly
Examples:
Vegetables
Legumes
Oatmeal
Cereals
Breads
Pasta
amylose and amylopectin
Energy reserve for plants
Most common carb in diet
Used as thickeners and stabilizers
Processed to produce many of the sugars in processed foods
nondigestible carbohydrates
Starch vs Fiber
Soluble- slow the movement of food through the system
Insoluble- Bulking fibers absorb water as they move through the digestive system
Prebiotics- stimulate the growth and/or activity of advantageous bacteria
Carbs and Insulin
If all carbs end up as glucose what does it matter if its spinach or donuts?
Complex
Simple
Good vs Bad
Google this:
Glycemic index
Good carbs vs bad carbs
Does insulin make you fat?
How many carbs should I eat?
Simple vs Complex Carbs
How many do
you need?
Does sugar cause
hyper active kids?

Number associated with a particular type of food that indicates the food's effect on a person's blood sugar
Glycemic Index
The smaller the number, the "better".
55 or less = Low (good)
56- 69 = Medium
70 or higher = High (bad)
Why it matters and why it doesn't.
Carbs have little impact on satiety
:(
Sugar Substitutes
Food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy
can be natural or synthetic
Artificial Sweeteners
Aspartame
Saccharin
Stevia
Sucralose
Brand names: Equal, NutraSweet, NatraTaste Blue

*Color of the packets: Blue

How many times sweeter than sugar? 160-220

Who should not use the product? People with a rare hereditary condition called phenylketonuria (PKU) cannot metabolize phenylalanine (an amino acid in aspartame). They should keep track of the amount of aspartame they are consuming.

**FDA history: Approved for use in foods in 1981, beverages in 1983 and, in 1996, as a general-purpose sweetener

Can you cook and bake with it? Aspartame loses sweetness with prolonged exposure to high temperatures and over an extended time in liquids. However, it can be added successfully to recipes, and an encapsulated form is available for commercial baking.

***Cost per packet: (Equal): 4 cents

How many packets to get the same sweetness as sugar? One packet equals two teaspoons of sugar.
Brand names: Sweet'N Low, SugarTwin

*Color of the packets: Pink (Sweet'N Low), yellow (SugarTwin)

How many times sweeter than sugar? 200-700

Who should not use the product? No restrictions

**FDA history: First produced in 1878 and used as a sweetener throughout World Wars I and II, saccharin has been the subject of investigations and proposed bans. Two decades ago, the FDA withdrew a proposal to ban its use.

Can you cook and bake with it? Yes, but check manufacturer's website for recipes, which often adjust cooking times and add sugar and other bulking agents.

***Cost per packet: (Sweet'N Low): 2.8 cents

How many packets to get the same sweetness as sugar? One packet equals two teaspoons of sugar.

Calories per packet: Zero
Brand names: Stevia Extract in the Raw, Truvia, PureVia

*Color of the packets: Green, green and white

How many times sweeter than sugar? 200-300

Who should not use the product? No restrictions on use

**FDA history: In December 2008, the FDA affirmed a panel's findings that steviol glycosides (sweetening compounds from the stevia leaf) are generally recognized as safe for use as general purpose sweeteners.

Can you cook and bake with it? Yes, but check manufacturer's website for recipes, which often adjust cooking times and add sugar and other bulking agents to recipes.

***Cost per packet: Stevia Extract in the Raw, 8.6 cents; Truvia, 9.5 cents

How many packets to get the same sweetness as sugar? One packet equals two teaspoons of sugar.

Calories per packet: Zero
Brand name: Splenda

*Color of the packets: Yellow

How many times sweeter than sugar? 600

Who should not use the product? No restrictions

**FDA history: In 1999, approved for all food and beverage categories as a general-purpose sweetener

Can you cook and bake with it? Yes, but check manufacturer's website for recipes, which often adjust cooking times and add sugar and other bulking agents to recipes.

***Cost per packet: 6 cents

How many packets to get the same sweetness as sugar? One packet equals two teaspoons of sugar.

Calories per packet: Zero
Review of the research
Full transcript