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IB Musical Links Investigation:

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BreAnna Hudson

on 16 April 2014

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Transcript of IB Musical Links Investigation:

IB Musical Links Investigation:
VARIATION OF RHYTHMS

Musical History
Traditional Djembe Drumming:
Analysis of "Don Quixote Suites Overture"
Don Quixote begins in the musical tempo of Largo, meaning long notes, played at a slow and steady pace, following a 4/4 meter. Telemann, rather than allowing each note to be drawn out he follows each long note with a series of short notes, forming a sophisticated series of rhythms, allowing it to stay within the Baroque style.

To begin the piece all instruments within the ensemble begin to play simultaneously; like stated before the introductoral section of the piece tempo is largo, so all but one of the instruments ( cembalo) enters with an whole note.

The contrast of long and short notes allows the piece to follow the rhythmic characteristics of the Baroque musical style while remaining in the prescribed time signature. The Largo continues until we which the begining of Section B, where enter with the tempo of Allegro; allowing the piece to pick up speed. Section B. opens with a dotted quarter note for the string instrument and a single quarter note with an rest for the cembalo and pianoforte. The use of dotted quarter notes and eighth notes is combined with the Baroque characteristics of the " bouncing bow", meaning the bow bounces on the string giving it a more staciato ( short detached ) sound.
Musical History
BAROQUE MUSICAL FEATURES:

In Baroque music the most commonly used melodic texture is polyphony. The melodies of Baroque pieces are usually very elaborate and provide vivid coloring for the listener, allowing them to paint their own picture with the rhythms provided on the score. Composers of this musical era focused more on the structure of the melody rather than the balance and the symmetry of the piece.
The rhythms provided by the composer during the Baroque musical era, are usually repeated through the entire piece, alongside the melody. The repetition of the rhythms and melody was the driving force of the particular piece; moving the piece forward.
During the Baroque musical era, there was no such thing as a crescendo or decrescendo, which allowed the dynamic of the music to remain the same for a period of time, before shifting to a different key or changing the rhythm to provide the listener with the emotion the composer hoped to convey when allowing the
" musical shift", this is a very common practice in Baroque Musical era called Terraced Dynamics. Many Baroque pieces are very rhythmic with detached notes and long holds before shifting to the next measure
Baroque Music also focuses on contrast and instrumentation. It was also not composed just for melody but also to accompanied by vocal performances
A DISCOVERY LINKING TRADITIONAL DJEMBE DRUMMING &
GERMAN BAROQUE MUSIC THROUGH " VARIATION OF RHYTHMS
" Music express that which cannot be but into words and that which cannot remain silent " Viincent Hugo
Musical Link
Although very distinct musical genres, with vastly different musical genres with vastly different musical audiences, they share some very important musical similarities that link them together. These links, although not easily found they are still relevant to the musical development, these links include use of variation of rhythm, the use of stories or historical context to produce music , and the use of different musical techniques allowing the composer to provide contrast within phrases without changing the tempo of the piece. These rhythmic variations cause each piece to have its own distinct qualities. To begin we will first discuss the use of rhythm and the the variation it encompasses.
Baroque and Djembe musical style use rhythmic variations to change both the dynamic and tone of the piece of music. Both musical genres use variation of rhythms to change the emotions conveyed to the listener, through the music. These variations are either conveyed through counterpoint, terraced dynamics and the use of polyrhythms. Don Quixote Suites Overture, begins very subtle with a slight use of ornamented notes and a very steady rhythm throughout measures 1-23, until it becomes more dramatic in measures 24, when we experience mass use of slurs, triplets, and apprioctturas. This causes the listener emotions connection to the music to shift from joyous, to being excited, eager to experience new rhythms. Traditional Djembe drumming also uses rhythmic variation to add significant to there repeated phases, allowing the music not to be a series of drawn out repetition of phrases following the pentatonic scale. Throughout the entirety of the piece there's repetition of the same polyrhythms, with slight variations within each occurrence , such as as an extra accent on the note or an extra beat add an sense of contrast, once again leaving the listener eager for more.
Alongside the use of rhythmic variation, they also have a link when it comes to use the views of society, when developing their music. Each musical genre uses stories to develop their artistic connection making sure the music not only speaks to them, but also the community they wish to target. G.P. Telemann, take on the novel Don Quixote, can be seen through both the title of the piece, but also the rhythms produced in the piece; they encompass joy, exhilaration, a sense of adventure with he use of stoccaito, apprioticura and Terrance dynamic. Mammady Kieta, also uses cultural aspects and tribal stories to devlope phrase and call and response that deal with societal circumstances. Most of Mammady Kieta rhythms correlate with the message of a specific group event on Track 1, of the Djembe Master Cd, represents a joyous occasion , we can see this through the us of complex rhytmns and from both the instruments and the voice accomplishments.
Each style of music as a distinct musical technique that allows the rhythms to very in style , such as the Djembe techniques of changing the pitch the use of the slap, tone, and bass note within the music. Where as the Baroque music also have many stylistic changes that help bring the dynamics to the piece, such as stocciato,and the use of appriocttura to add an ornament , without losing the full theme of the music.
A discovery has been made linking the two vastly different musical types of Traditional Djembe Drumming, originating in Mali, West Africa , as a tribal practice and German Baroque music. Through this investigation we will critically analyze the works of Sierre Leone's, Mamady Kiete, first track of his album entitled " Djembe Master", and Georg Phillip Telemann's, Don Quixote Suite, Movement one entitled " Overture". We hope to find musical elements linking the two distinct genres of music, connecting them as a whole within their musical context. We will begin by first analyzing the historical context of both the artist and the music they produce. We will then discuss the links we found through our investigation and how they help convey the message the composer wishes to portray.

Djembe is a communal music encompassing the whole community including song and dance alongside the distinct rhythmic phrases the drums produce.
Djembe drumming has a very rhythmic structure with a penatonic melodic texture.
The rhythms of djembe music are very readily overlaid with counterpoint that are played simultaneously, producing a polyrhythm. A polyrhythm is defined as a series of multiple rhythms played at the same time. This practice helps bulid the texture of the music allowing it to be very elaborate and rhythmic.
Another distinct quality of the djembe music is that they do not use harmony but build complex rhythms with either the vocals produced or the instruments themselves.

Composed by: G.P. Tleman
Analysis of "Don Quixote Suite Overture"
Composed by: G.P. Telemann
Prior to the begining of Section B, we are presented with a seven chord found in measure 18, that leads us into the new rhythm.






Section B, is very musical and has a very vibrant texture, you could describe this section as very sing-songy, wit a very large range within this section, ranging from a D on the D-string and a B on the E-string. Telemann uses appiotachura very readily to both maintain the melody of the piece, but also by allowing the tempo of the piece to remain the same and by allowing the quarter notes to remain relevant to the phrase.

Section B, begins with everyone simultaneously playing and then fades out and we are left with first violin playing the melody, this is the first moment we have one single melody. It then becomes homophonic in texture when second violins enter in a beat before measure 27 measure ;

after the enterance of the second violin all the other instruments enter a beat before measure 31, causing the texture to shift to polyphony. section C, follows the same rhythm that was introduced in Section B. The string instruments hold the melody until measure 38, where it returns back to polyphony. We then enter Section D, were the down rhythm, is a continuation of the rhythm provided by the introduction of section B,
includes some slight differences. The pianoforte and cembalo hold the intricate phrases and string instruments actting as accents until measure 52.
Analysis of" Don Quixote Suite Overture"
Composed by: G.P. Telemann
There is another cadence in measure 69 with slurred eighth notes that allows Telemann to add a little more variation with this section.





There is also a cadence in measure 72, that allows an even more dramatic change in the previous introduced rhythm or phrase. Section H, begin with a perfect authentic cadence in measure 93, which allows Telemann to shift back to homphonic texture, where first violins gold melody from measure 94-99. Section I, is once again a variation of the rhythms previously expressed, just with different bowing.Measure 11)1, we are presented with a ritardando that slows down the tempo but allows Telemann to stay within the time signature of 4/4. Section K, we are once again presented with the same rhythm, just a different note within the G major key signature, we begin with a G rather than a D on the A-string ( an octave lower), at the end of this section we are presented with a D chord that ends the first movement and also leads us into the next movement.
Analysis of Djembe Masters
Composed by. Mammady Kieta

Track 1, of the the CD entitled Djemebe Master, begins with a pentatonic texture ( scale of 5 notes), where all drums enter and each of their parts are equally as important until 0:08 of the recording, where djembe rhythms becomes more distinct. As the song progressed we are introduced to a cadence at 0:09, that helps lead the listener into the next rhythm, introduced solely by the djembe drum. At 0:10 in the recording the dunun drum enter, acting as an accent to the rhythm presented by the more dominant djembe drum. The dunun drum like stated previously also continues to keep the tempo of the piece, while still maintaining rhythmic phrases. We also experience this through the variation of the rhythm the different techniques that add extra beats and counter beats. We have a distinct change in rhythm where the djembe holds the the key part of the ensemble at 0:40-0:47 of the recording.
This track on the CD, also adds another element that makes it an even more unique quality, which is voice, through call and response introduced in 1:17-2:19. At 1:17-1:20 we have a single male voice line. He uses a small range. We are then introduced to a small choir, that builds a complex rhythm rather than developing a harmony .
Analysis of Djembe Master : Track 1
We are then introduced to a new rhythm after a cadence produced by the drums at 2:25-3:12. After the rhythm is introduced we then experiences variation once again that allows the piece to maintain its distinct sound. The voice section is also reintroduced at 3:24, in the previous section. At 4:16, the piece becomes polyphonic in texture we experience the importances of voice and instrumentation. To end the piece, each drummer begins to use different techniques to add a little more variation to the music they produced allowing a lasting impression on the listener.
Work Cited
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_musical_symbols

http://michaelpluznick.com/understanding-the-basic-fundamentals-of-playing-the-djembe/
http://www.baroquemusic.org/bardefn.html
http://www.wwdrums.com/pages/djembe-construction-types-of-djembes.html
http://content.thespco.org/music/compositions/don-quixote-suite-georg-philipp-telemann/

http://www.allmusic.com/composition/overture-burlesque-de-quichotte-suite-for-strings-amp-continuo-in-g-major-twv-55g10-mc0002358192
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