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Dismemberment of Pakistan (1971)
Transcript of Dismemberment of Pakistan (1971)
Bengali political leaders and their inclinations
The 1970 elections and role of Mujeeb-u-Rehman
The over-whelming victory of Awami League in 1970
The inflexibility of the Punjabi elite and Army over the issue of Bangali dominance on federal government Cultural Disparity What went Wrong: Were the initiated policies implemented too? If so, then what was their impact?
Muslim Nationalism was inadequate to bridge the East-West Pakistan gap
The notion that Punjab was really the raison d'être of Pakistan could not be purged The Bigger Question: Despite the efforts waged to solve the issues between East and West Pakistan,
WHAT WENT WRONG? Dismemberment of
Pakistan (1971) Cultural Disparity and Political Issues Economic Problems and Military Issues Economic Problems Had Pakistan become a dual-economy? Biased Government Agricultural Policy Cotton-Jute rivalry
East produced almost half of the country’s export earnings
70% of total value of exports
Slow and ineffective agrarian reforms
Greater Private Investment in West Pakistan
Superior Infrastructure in West Pakistan
Economic Disparity All of us have heard different versions of the story: Civil war... Inflexibility of army Bad
Governance! Two-nation theory Cultural
Disparity Awami League
Muslim League Urdu versus Bengali 1970 Elections... Mujib-u-Rehman Jew Conspiracy Economic
Interference! Mukti Bahni... Riots... Fall of Dhaka...! Geographical Disparity... PAKISTAN: DISCONTIGUITY AND THE MAJORITY PROBLEM (1968): Glenn V. Stephenson presents his perspective of the problems that were prevalent during that time Economic Problems
Had Pakistan become a dual-economy?
Language and Identity crisis
Military and Political Issues
The bigger question: What went wrong? Jute Production from the East:
Despite the great amount of revenue East Pakistan contributed, they received a very feeble amount of financial aid in return Military Issues: The large part of Pakistani army consisted of soldiers from West Pakistan
The reciprocal effect of the stereotype that Bengalis were not ‘built’ for being a part of the army
Was any attempt made to eradicate this discrepancy? Discontiguity between East and West wing:
In addition to the geographical discontiguity, the two lands were also culturally apart.
Due to the cultural disparity, Islam was not enough to define nationalism.
Urdu and Bengali have always been in a conflict because of the superior status attached to Urdu
Only 10% of East Pakistan's populations spoke Urdu
Attempts were made to change the script of Bengali in 1952 Questions?