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Copy of Copy of Songhai

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on 19 September 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Songhai

Location
Famous Rulers
Table Of Contents.
Title Page................................................................................Slide 1
Table of contents.....................................................................Slide 2
Location.......................................................................................Slide 3-4
Religion & Linguistic Group...............................................................Slide 5
Historical Figure..........................................................................Slide 6
Political & Social Structure.......................................................Slide 7
Natural Resources & Trade......................................................Slide 8-9
Rise & Fall of the Civilization..............................................................Slide 10
Significant Contributions.................................................................Slide 11
Timeline Events..................................................................................Slide 12
Work Cited..........................................................................................Slide 13



Religion in Songhai

Work Cited
Google Images
Songhai was northwest of Nigeria but moved up to the west of Sudan. There are 2 capitals in the Songhai Kingdom. The first capital was Kukiya, and the other one was Gao.

The main religion in Songhai was Islam , but Songhai residents never forgot their cultural traditions. Sunni Ali, the king of Songhai in 1464 CE who accepted Islam, was accused by Muslims during the conquest of Timbuktu for killing Muslim scholars who didn't respect the Songhai religion.

McKissack, Pat, and Fredrick McKissack. The Royal Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay: Life in Medieval Africa. New York: H. Holt, 1994. Print.
Sunni Ali ("Ali the
Great")
Askia Muhammad
Dwyer, Helen. The Middle Ages, 600 to 1492. Redding, CT: Brown Bear, 2009. Print.
Political Structure
The Songhai empire had a strong government. It was a large empire, the largest in West Africa's history, and existed from 1340-1591. The empire had two very significant rulers- Sunni Ali and Askia Muhammad. Sunni Ali was known for his military accomplishments, gaining almost all the land the empire possessed and accrued great wealth.

While under Askia, the traditional Songhai laws were switched with Islamic laws. Also under Askia, the empire saw increased centralization, which made them strong. The government was a monarchy and was organized through a system of provincial governments and viceroys, or rulers who oversaw different parts of the land.
http://www.timemaps.com/civilization/African-kingdoms#songov
Natural Resources & Trade
Arising in the 13th century, the empire of Mali centered on fertile farmland on the inland delta of the Niger River. It's government and army, which included cavalry, were influenced by the Muslims states of North African cities such as Koumbi - Saleh and Timbuktu at the Southern end of the trans-Saharan camel caravan routes. They became centers where African slaves, ivory and gold were exchanged for salt , cloth , glass , ceramics , horses and other luxuries from the North.
Map of Caravan Routes
Fall of the Songhai Empire

Askia Muhammad's son Musa led a revolt against him. Askia Muhammad renounced his throne and was placed under house arrest. When Musa was killed, Askia Muhammad's older sons tried to take over and failed. The kingdom remained in disarray until Askia Daoud gained power and restored peace and order. It didn't last long. The wealth of the empire made it the envy of its neighbors. Although the Songhai army was powerful, it was no match for the Moors from Morocco. In 1591 CE , the Moors invaded Songhai to search for the gold mines but couldn't find them. Instead, they robbed the people and destroyed the towns. The Moors divided Songhai. It ruined the trade route and made it unsafe to trade in Songhai. Without trade , the kingdom quickly collapsed into poverty.
http://www.learner.org/interactives/collapse/mali.html
Significant Contributions
Sunni Ali developed new methods of farming and created a professional navy for Songhai.
Askia Muhammad greatly improved the learning centers of Songhai by encouraging scholars to come from other parts of Africa (as well as Europe and Asia) to settle in Timbuktu and Jenne. He also built as many as 180 Koranic schools in Timbuktu alone. Indeed, the Sankore University in Timbuktu developed a reputation for scholarship in rhetoric, logic, Islamic law, grammar, astronomy, history, and geography.
His most important innovation was to open up the ranks of government service. Previously, the status of the leaders of the empire was determined upon the basis of birth. Under Askia Muhammad, however, men could achieve high office based upon their scholarship and intellect regardless of their social position. Askia also organized and established a permanent professional army, which enabled him to expand the territory of Songhai and turn the Songhai Empire into the largest empire every known in the Western and Central Sudan.
1444
Songhai Building An Empire
(As the Songhai gained in wealth,
they expanded their territory and built an empire.)
1464
1421
Empire Rebellion
(But as the Mali Empire weakened in the 1400s, the people of Songhai rebelled and regained their freedom.)
Sunni Ali Takes Power
(Songhai’s expansion was led by Sunni Ali, who became ruler of the Songhai in 1464. Before he took over, the Songhai state had been disorganized.)
1493
Rebellion Against Sunni Baru
(When Sunni Ali died, his son Sunni Baru followed as king but was not a Muslim. The Songhai people feared that if Sunni Baru didn’t support Islam, they would lose their trade with Muslim lands. They rebelled against the king.)
1493
Muhammed Askia becomes king.
(The leader of that rebellion was a general named Muhammad Ture. After overthrowing Sunni Baru, Muhammad Ture chose the title Askia, a title of high military rank. Eventually, he became known as Askia the Great.)
1591
Songhai Empire Falls
Songhai Falls to Morocco, a northern rival of Songhai, Morocco wanted to gain control of Songhai’s gold mines. They invaded the kingdom but never found anything. The Moroccans destroyed Timbuktu and Gao , followed by Djenne. They disrupted the lucrative trans-Saharan trade. Without trade, the Kingdom of Songhai collapsed into poverty.
Location
The Songhai Empire
The rise of the empire began when Mali lost Gao. Songhai grew in power and in 1464 CE , the king of Songhai was Ali Ber (known as Sunni Ali or "Ali the Great"). He was the king that took over lands that had once been part of the Kingdom of Mali. His army also conquered Timbuktu and Djenne (Jenne) as part of gaining control of the Saharan trade routes. He controlled a huge kingdom and the important trade routes across the Sahara. It expanded to become the largest of the three great West African Civilizations.

In 1493 the kingdom was taken over by Askia Muhammad. He strengthened Islam in the empire, appointed judges, and new books were written and copied on many topics.
Mosque in Timbuktu
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